Sunday, February 26, 2012

A poem

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In case Batman gets lost, presumably.


Decisions, decisions !





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In case Batman gets lost, presumably.


Decisions, decisions !





Only 6% of women ever find this.


Harsh methods of population control.


Hurrah !


Yes, well, err……?


Hope it’s not too urgent.


Tasty.


Prince Phillip says much the same.





So make sure it’s on your CV.


Hygiene is important.


It’s a dream come true.


McDeath ?





Not even an emergency phone.


To chill out those stressed rabbits.


An American sign. Obviously.


Ooops, not secret anymore!!


Another dream come true….





Such insight……





Only 6% of women ever find this.


Harsh methods of population control.


Hurrah !


Yes, well, err……?


Hope it’s not too urgent.


Tasty.


Prince Phillip says much the same.





So make sure it’s on your CV.


Hygiene is important.


It’s a dream come true.


McDeath ?





Not even an emergency phone.


To chill out those stressed rabbits.


An American sign. Obviously.


Ooops, not secret anymore!!


Another dream come true….





Emily Dickinsons world was her fathers home and garden in a small New England town. She lived most of her life within this private world. Her romantic visions and emotional intensity kept her from making all but a few friends. Because of this life of solitude, she was able to focus on her world


Such insight……


Emily Dickinsons world was her fathers home and garden in a small New England town. She lived most of her life within this private world. Her romantic visions and emotional intensity kept her from making all but a few friends. Because of this life of solitude, she was able to focus on her world


100 Years of Solitude Just as Edmund Spenser believes in “the ever-whirling wheel of Change; that which all mortal things doth sway,” so too does Gabriel García Márquez. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, Colonel Aureliano Buendía experiences life and the changes which accompany it. Spenser v a poem


Please note that this sample paper on A poem is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on A poem, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on A poem will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, February 23, 2012

honesty in othello

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Othello and Honesty


Honesty is one of the most important factors in Othello. And although there is very little honesty actually present in the play the term is most commonly applied to Iago, who also happens to be the most dishonest character in Othello. Due partly to the other characters naivet�, Iago is capable of manipulating, brainwashing, and molding the other characters to satisfy his need for revenge against Othello.


Iago would most commonly be referred to as dishonest, however beyond that he is also downright amoral and uses other’s weaknesses to manipulate them into doing what he pleases. From the very beginning we see how Iago manipulates Roderigo by pretending he is looking out for his best interests in the matter of Othello’s elopement with Desdemona. He makes Barbantio angry with Othello and Desdemona by telling him about their elopement then lying about the consummation of their relationship. He then leaves Roderigo to take responsibility for his (Iago’s) actions. In the meantime he goes off to inform Othello that Roderigo is accountable for telling Barbantio about the relationship and saying horrible things about Othello. Iago later brings Roderigo back into his quest for revenge when he tries to get Cassio fired from the position that Iago originally wished to obtain. Although Cassio knows it is against his better judgement to drink, Iago manipulates him into getting drunk then stages a fight between Roderigo and Cassio. He even goes as far as to try to make Cassio look bad by telling Montano that he gets drunk regularly. Upon Iago’s explanation of the situation Othello promptly fires Cassio from his position and Iago becomes more respected in Othello’s eyes. Roderigo is a prime example of how Iago uses people to fulfil his desires. Iago convinces Roderigo that he could win Desdemona’s love away from Othello and the only man that stands in the way is Cassio. In this way when he plans to humiliate Cassio it seems as if he is doing it to help out Roderigo when, in actuality, he is seeking revenge on Cassio for taking his position.


One of the main reasons Iago is so successful at manipulating others is because they are too guileless to realize that he is taking advantage of them. Cassio still comes to Iago for advice after Iago rats him out and gets him fired. He still trusts him enough to ask for advice on how to get his job back, the very job that Iago is responsible for making him lose. When Iago gives him this advice he is grateful and confident in Iago’s honesty.


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“You advise me well” (., line 0)


Iago is so sneaky he even manages to manipulate his wife into dishonesty. He incorporates Emily’s participation into his plan to make Othello suspicious of Cassio and Desdemona’s relationship. He also continuously tries to convince Emily to steal the handkerchief Othello gave to Desdemona. And when Desdemona drops the handkerchief Emily gives it to Iago without pursuing what he was going to use it for.


Iago is very clearly deceitful and sneaky. He talks about people behind their backs on more than one occasion and sometimes talks about them to their faces. When Cassio first comes to tell Othello that Barbantio and several soldiers are looking for him Othello goes into the house leaving Iago and Cassio outside together. Iago immediately seizes this opportunity and tells Cassio that Othello is sleeping with Desdemona. Although Iago gives Othello the impression that he is on his side when Barbantio, Roderigo, and the guards find Othello Iago says, “Roderigo!…I am for you” (1., line 5). Later when Roderigo looks to Iago for advice Iago comes off as a caring friend and as soon as he leaves he begins insulting him and commenting on his stupidity. However, the characters do not seem to notice Iago’s dishonesty. On the contrary, they praise him for being so honest.


Iago pushes the idea of him being an honest man to the point where he brainwashes others into believing he is honest then uses it to his advantage. When plotting to break up a happy marriage or seeking revenge on others he uses phrases such as, “As honest as I am”, “As I am an honest man”, and “in the sincerity of love and honest kindness”. None of these phrases portray the true feelings of Iago. In fact in Act I scene I he tells Roderigo of how only a fool acts honest and he suggests putting oneself before honesty, which is exactly what he does. Others begin to view Iago as an honest man, especially Othello. He is described by Othello as “a fellow of exceeding honesty”, Cassio claims to never have met a Florentine so kind and honest. Desdemona tells Emily that Iago is an honest man and Othello feels that his honesty and love “doth mince” the matter of Cassio’s being fired. In fact, Othello tells the governor that Iago is a man of honesty and trust and even puts his wife in Iago’s hands while he is away. Iago uses this trust to his advantage.


“He holds me well, the better shall my purpose work on him” (1., lines 1-)


Iago uses Othello’s trust to exact revenge upon him for not giving him the job he wanted and sleeping with his wife, which was actually an unlikely rumor that hadn’t been proved.


Other characters in the play are not completely honest. Desdemona does not tell her father about her elopement with Othello, and Roderigo is always trying to steal Desdemona away from Othello. However, no one is as dishonest, amoral, and downright corrupt as Iago. Yet, oddly enough, Iago is praised for his honesty far more than any other character. Which shows the naivet� of the characters and the irony of the play.


Othello and Honesty


Honesty is one of the most important factors in Othello. And although there is very little honesty actually present in the play the term is most commonly applied to Iago, who also happens to be the most dishonest character in Othello. Due partly to the other characters naivet�, Iago is capable of manipulating, brainwashing, and molding the other characters to satisfy his need for revenge against Othello.


Iago would most commonly be referred to as dishonest, however beyond that he is also downright amoral and uses other’s weaknesses to manipulate them into doing what he pleases. From the very beginning we see how Iago manipulates Roderigo by pretending he is looking out for his best interests in the matter of Othello’s elopement with Desdemona. He makes Barbantio angry with Othello and Desdemona by telling him about their elopement then lying about the consummation of their relationship. He then leaves Roderigo to take responsibility for his (Iago’s) actions. In the meantime he goes off to inform Othello that Roderigo is accountable for telling Barbantio about the relationship and saying horrible things about Othello. Iago later brings Roderigo back into his quest for revenge when he tries to get Cassio fired from the position that Iago originally wished to obtain. Although Cassio knows it is against his better judgement to drink, Iago manipulates him into getting drunk then stages a fight between Roderigo and Cassio. He even goes as far as to try to make Cassio look bad by telling Montano that he gets drunk regularly. Upon Iago’s explanation of the situation Othello promptly fires Cassio from his position and Iago becomes more respected in Othello’s eyes. Roderigo is a prime example of how Iago uses people to fulfil his desires. Iago convinces Roderigo that he could win Desdemona’s love away from Othello and the only man that stands in the way is Cassio. In this way when he plans to humiliate Cassio it seems as if he is doing it to help out Roderigo when, in actuality, he is seeking revenge on Cassio for taking his position.


One of the main reasons Iago is so successful at manipulating others is because they are too guileless to realize that he is taking advantage of them. Cassio still comes to Iago for advice after Iago rats him out and gets him fired. He still trusts him enough to ask for advice on how to get his job back, the very job that Iago is responsible for making him lose. When Iago gives him this advice he is grateful and confident in Iago’s honesty.


“You advise me well” (., line 0)


Iago is so sneaky he even manages to manipulate his wife into dishonesty. He incorporates Emily’s participation into his plan to make Othello suspicious of Cassio and Desdemona’s relationship. He also continuously tries to convince Emily to steal the handkerchief Othello gave to Desdemona. And when Desdemona drops the handkerchief Emily gives it to Iago without pursuing what he was going to use it for.


Iago is very clearly deceitful and sneaky. He talks about people behind their backs on more than one occasion and sometimes talks about them to their faces. When Cassio first comes to tell Othello that Barbantio and several soldiers are looking for him Othello goes into the house leaving Iago and Cassio outside together. Iago immediately seizes this opportunity and tells Cassio that Othello is sleeping with Desdemona. Although Iago gives Othello the impression that he is on his side when Barbantio, Roderigo, and the guards find Othello Iago says, “Roderigo!…I am for you” (1., line 5). Later when Roderigo looks to Iago for advice Iago comes off as a caring friend and as soon as he leaves he begins insulting him and commenting on his stupidity. However, the characters do not seem to notice Iago’s dishonesty. On the contrary, they praise him for being so honest.


Iago pushes the idea of him being an honest man to the point where he brainwashes others into believing he is honest then uses it to his advantage. When plotting to break up a happy marriage or seeking revenge on others he uses phrases such as, “As honest as I am”, “As I am an honest man”, and “in the sincerity of love and honest kindness”. None of these phrases portray the true feelings of Iago. In fact in Act I scene I he tells Roderigo of how only a fool acts honest and he suggests putting oneself before honesty, which is exactly what he does. Others begin to view Iago as an honest man, especially Othello. He is described by Othello as “a fellow of exceeding honesty”, Cassio claims to never have met a Florentine so kind and honest. Desdemona tells Emily that Iago is an honest man and Othello feels that his honesty and love “doth mince” the matter of Cassio’s being fired. In fact, Othello tells the governor that Iago is a man of honesty and trust and even puts his wife in Iago’s hands while he is away. Iago uses this trust to his advantage.


“He holds me well, the better shall my purpose work on him” (1., lines 1-)


Iago uses Othello’s trust to exact revenge upon him for not giving him the job he wanted and sleeping with his wife, which was actually an unlikely rumor that hadn’t been proved.


Other characters in the play are not completely honest. Desdemona does not tell her father about her elopement with Othello, and Roderigo is always trying to steal Desdemona away from Othello. However, no one is as dishonest, amoral, and downright corrupt as Iago. Yet, oddly enough, Iago is praised for his honesty far more than any other character. Which shows the naivet� of the characters and the irony of the play.





Please note that this sample paper on honesty in othello is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on honesty in othello, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on honesty in othello will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Images of Africa in 'The River Between' and 'Things Fall Apart'

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Images of Africa In ‘The River Between’ and ‘Things Fall Apart’


The colonization of Africa enforced peoples of different cultures, who had lived practically separate, and who probably fought wars against each other, to accept the same political boundaries, common citizenship, one national name and a unified administration. It is a fundamental fact that the process of colonization overwhelms the whole culture of the society it possesses, inevitably leading to a hybridization of that culture. This not only applies to countries on the African continent, but all countries where occupation and suppression for economic gain has taken place. Different writers at different times have attempted to supplant the impressions of the African experience and stereotypes, portrayed by writers such as Joseph Conrad and H Rider Haggard, with their individual vision of a complex society in the process of coming to terms with the legacy of Western colonial oppression. A legacy that had forcibly divided the continent into manageable units to suit the colonizing powers, enabling them to establish political and social control. This process of divide and rule even after independence results in conflict. ‘The River Between’ written by Ngugi in 165, two years after independence, parallels some of the political events happening at the time of writing, with the events in the years he is writing about. Setting the novel between two mountain ridges emphasizes the antagonism between the two native groups and their irreconcilable belief structures.


“When you stood in the valley, the two ridges ceased to be sleeping lions united by their common source of life. They became antagonists. You could tell this, not by anything tangible but by the way they faced each other, like two rivals ready to come to blows in a life and death struggle for the leadership of this isolated region.”


Ngugi also wrote a play ‘The Black Hermit’ which is concerned with stamping out tribalism and was produced in 16 marking East Africa’s debut in drama. The antagonisms at that time between the ethnic groups comprising the Kenya African National Union, and the Kenyan African Democratic union resulted at independence, in a ‘quasi-federal society with seven provinces each with their own authority, which only worked out its differences in December 164 to become a unitary, one party state, and a republic.’ The contradictions and antagonisms created by the process of colonization are still realities in contemporary Africa.


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Fanon postulates that the first step for a colonized people in finding a voice and an identity is to reclaim their own past. The initial literary reaction to this is a relative over production, taking as a theme a ‘cry of protest’ addressed in such a way as to either ingratiate himself with, or reproach his oppressor. To do this the writer writes in the language of the colonizing power, effectively affirming his assimilation of that culture. The next stage the writer arrives at is a remembrance of his origins. In this the writer appeals to the native peoples to remember who they are, recalling the past to emphasize his conceptions. However, returning to the past is impossible, he is no longer a part of that culture only, but also that of the colonizing power. Succeeding this is the stage Fanon considers to be the beginning of a national literature, the ‘literature of combat’. This is the clarion call of the writer to the people to defend their culture, his attempt to become the ‘mouthpiece of a new reality’ but any struggle whether political, military, or the struggle for enlightenment, irreconcilably changes the culture you are trying to defend. The traditional stories, rituals, customs and philosophies that form the ideology of a people change and evolve over time, and they can be manipulated and adapted to suit the situation, and to mould the consciousness of that society. Under these influences all society’s can be considered to be hybrid. On this basis, and in the light of his own experience the writer has set himself an impossible task and he can only present an individual ideal, creating a pre-colonial version of his own nation. It is not only the literature, but also the painting, sculpture, music, drama and dance of a nation that represent the perceptions of the culture of a nation at a given time.


Whilst agreeing that contemporary issues are legitimate themes for the novelist, Chinua Achebe in “The Role of the Writer in a New Nation” states ‘the novelist’s duty is not to beat this morning’s headline in topicality, it is to explore in depth the human condition. In Africa he cannot perform this task unless he has a proper sense of history.’ Achebe has designated himself an educator writing to teach his readers that


“their past with all its imperfections was not one long night of savagery from which the first Europeans acting on God’s behalf delivered them”.


The novel ‘Things Fall Apart’ attempts to do this using the themes of tribal traditions, proverbs, folklore, and the philosophical and political concepts, of the Ibo people, and the changes that occur with colonization. Both authors are not writing a history, they are writing a fictitional representation of the past in an attempt to reclaim it. Ngugi uses many of the same themes, but in ‘The River Between’ greater emphasis is placed on religion and education. At the time of writing both novels were attempting to challenge the hegemony of the colonizing power. In the second half of the nineteenth century the continent saw a rise in the activity of Christian missionaries, especially after the abolition of the slave trade and growing interest in other types of trade. The missionaries established schools originally intended to train local helpers, but they later served European colonial administrations and commercial concerns by preparing low-level functionaries. In ‘Things Fall Apart’ these functionaries are derisorily named ‘Kotma’ and the treachery, corruption and betrayal that they display is highlighted when the six leaders, Okonkwo amongst them, are imprisoned for the destruction of the church. This highlights the process of the pacification of the people undertook by the colonizing power. The increase in the fine from two hundred to two hundred and fifty cowries emphasizes the corruption and shortcomings of these natives.





Ngugi attended the mission-run school at Kamaandura in Limuru, Karinga school in Maanguu, and Alliance High School in Kikuyu. During these years Ngugi became a devout Christian. Later he rejected Christianity, and changed his original name in 176 from James Ngugi to Ngugi wa Thiongo. This is significant in that the main theme of ‘The River Between’ is one of deeply rooted religious conflict. The Kameno ridge symbolizing the continuation of indigenous cultural traditions such as circumcision and polytheism, the Makuyu ridge, Christianity and a British educational system. Christian missionaries attempt to outlaw the female circumcision ritual and in the process create a terrible rift between the two Kikuyu communities on either side of the river. The people are divided between those who believe in the Western Christian education and the opportunities it will offer, and those who feel that only unquestioned loyalty to past traditions will save them. Waiyaki the main protagonist is placed between the two trying to reconcile his sense of responsibility as the saviour of the Kameno traditions, and a rising belief in the value of the British educational system, as a result of his father sending him to the school at the Siriana mission, and so subjecting him to the colonizing influence.. This inner conflict is prevalent throughout, further complicated by his growing love for Nyambura, the daughter of Joshua, a convert to Christianity who fervently preached against the old ways. The author depicts his predicament in such a way as to involve the reader in making value judgments, which from a euro centric view would invoke sympathy and understanding for Waiyaki, but from the viewpoint of a native could be considered to be a betrayal. A view that is subtly enforced throughout the narrative, one of the more obvious ways of doing this appearing early in the text, written in both English and the native language.


“The oilskin of the house is not for rubbing into the skin of strangers”


At the time of writing this could equate to Fanon’s ‘clarion call’, emphasizing the betrayal of the people not only by the colonizer but also by the colonized. In ‘Things Fall Apart’ Okonkwo far from being converted to any part of the ‘white’ man’s culture actively fights against it and after his seven years of exile comes to realise that this encroachment in the form of the church, government, judicial system and trade has fragmented the traditional way of Ibo life. Achebe successfully creates a character who can be seen as exemplifying a traditional Ibo worldview with all its positive and negative aspects. His portrayal of a Okonkwo’s thoughts are a means of revealing his feelings and responses, and is an invitation by the writer to see things from a his point of view. Achebe shapes his life and his death by suicide to parallel the process of colonization, the ‘falling apart’ and the destructive compromises the indigenous culture and ideology is forced to make. The tempo of the narrative stays constant throughout leading to a climax that descends on the reader with the same force and speed with which the colonizing power descended on the land.





Ngugi is an active campaigner for the African language and form. And has made a conscious choice to write in his mother tongue as has the Nigerian writer Obiajunwas


Wali believing writers should not go ‘whoring after foreign gods’. Other writers acknowledge that the choice of English may in part, contribute to the death of the mother tongue, but any diachronic study of a language will trace changes in the language over time, and given the escalating use of the English language it could be presumed that they face a continual challenge. A return to the native language can be seen as an attempt to restructure attitudes to the indigenous culture and create a link to those people whose lives have continued to be conducted in their mother tongues. Nigeria has as many as 400 indigenous mother tongues and three widely used link languages. Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba as well as English. Achebe distinguishes his writing from the writing of other English language novelists by introducing the rhythms, speech patterns, idioms and other verbal nuances of Ibo.


“ In literary writing the dominant language and its discursive forms are appropriated to express widely differing cultural experiences. Chinua Achebe (quoting James Baldwin), noted that the language so used can bear the burden of another experience and this has become one of the most famous declarations of the power of appropriation in post-colonial discourse.”


The third person narrative provides a voice that conveys the sense of order and harmony in the rhythms and rituals of the clan before the coming of the white man, conveying the sense of native Africans speaking and living in a genuine native African living situation, whilst ensuring the meaning remains clear. African literatures have been influenced to a remarkable degree by the continent’s long tradition of oral artistry.


“As Edward Sackey observes, Ngugi and other African writers depend on the oral tradition of Africa to deform the received Western novelistic pattern in order to challenge our received notion while our African identity is also affirmed, thereby freeing Africa from the negative image in which others have created us”.


Achebe uses folklore legend, myth and proverbs to point out the indifference, selfishness and stupidity of man, and to portray the traditions and customs of the clan The story of the bird Eneke-nti-obi and the wily tortoise feature prominently, as does the descriptions of the treatment of a guest and the sharing of the kola. The folktales are often employed for social commentary and instruction and also serve as a potent means of affirming group values and discouraging antisocial behavior. Whilst Ngugi doesn’t use the didactic animal tale in his novel he places great emphasis on the myth surrounding the activities of the gods at the beginning of creation,


“This land I give to you, O man and woman. It is yours to rule and till, you and your posterity”


The two novels looked at are representations of ‘Africa’ and as such must be viewed as constructed images that need to be interrogated for their ideological content. In ‘The River Between’ there is undoubtedly a political message whereas in ‘Things Fall Apart’ the underlying theme is one of pathos. Ella Shohat claims that the reader should constantly question, and that representations in one sphere effects other spheres of representation, particularly the political one.


“The struggle to speak for oneself cannot be separated from a history of being spoken for, from the struggle to speak and be heard.”


Edward Said in his analysis of textual representations of the Orient in ‘Orientalism’ emphasizes the fact that representations can never be exactly realistic. Whether Achebe and Ngugi have been realistic or not they have both achieved significance in what are considered to be post colonial literatures.


“Post-colonial literatures, which were not considered to be part of the canon, found themselves able to represent their own worlds, their own local cultures with an immediacy often denied so-called Universal literature. They appropriated the techniques and the genres of literature and made them work for African forms of representation.





Please note that this sample paper on Images of Africa in 'The River Between' and 'Things Fall Apart' is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Images of Africa in 'The River Between' and 'Things Fall Apart', we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on Images of Africa in 'The River Between' and 'Things Fall Apart' will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Tuesday, February 21, 2012

IMPACT OF CORPORATE VISION AND MISSION STATEMENTS ON AN ORGANISATION.

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CHAPTER ONE


1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


The function of Leadership � the number one responsibility of a leader is to catalyze a clear and shared vision for the company and to secure commitment to and vigorous pursuit of that vision. As we discussed earlier, this is a universal requirement of leadership, and no matter what your style, you must perform this function.


Why is visioning and mission statements so important? What exactly is a vision and a mission statement? And how do we go about setting them?


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Answering these questions is the essence of this project work. The writer hopes to inspire its readers to put “catalyze a shared vision” as its number one priority.


I will present the “Collins-Porras Vision Frame work” � a useful, concrete framework that removes the fuzziness that surrounds the topic yet, at the same time, preserves the magic or spark that’s an essential quality of Vision. Throughout this project I will provide specific pointers on the process of catalyzing a shared vision, I’ll like to provide you a quick snapshot of the overall structure that.


Figure 1.1





STRATEGY STRATEGY


TACTICS TACTICS


Figure 1.1 shows the basic flows you begin with Vision; move to strategy, and then to tactics. It also shows that vision is composed of three basic parts core values and beliefs, purpose, and mission.


I will explain each of these parts later in the chapter, and give many examples. But first I will explain why an organization should take on the challenging task of setting a vision.


Instilling an organization with a lasting corporate vision is a challenging task. As one manager told me, “By asking me to do this you’re setting the bar at a very high level.


The purpose of this study therefore, is to ascertain the role which corporate vision and mission statements plays in the overall performance of an organization.


1. DEFINITION OF PROBLEM


The ability of organizations to formulate a clear strategy can be most tasking for the modern managers. And often times this puts to test the competencies and managerial capabilities of the leader of an organization.


There are thousands of pages in management literature written about strategy. Strategic Management is a required course at most business schools. Large consulting firms build client lists by selling “strategy solutions”. There is good reason for this sound strategy is essential to attaining greatness.


But think for a minute about the word strategy. What does it really mean? Strategy is how one intends to go about attaining a desired end. It is the means to an end. Thus, it is wholly impossible to have an effective strategy unless you are clear absolutely clear about what the end point is. Strategy is a path to attaining your vision. Knowing how to get “there” is impossible if you can’t articulate what “there” is.


Most companies let crises, firefights, and tactical decisions drive the company. We refer to this as “tactics-driving strategy”. Vision should drive strategy and strategy, in turn, should drive tactics, not the other way around.


This may seem obvious and the reader may be wondering why the writer is harping on it. However, its practice is also extraordinarily rare. I’ve noticed that in my short career that in almost every company (including my present organization) with significant organizational problems, one of the root difficulties is the lack of a clear vision. As I write this thesis we have a group of consultants in-house at my company helping us out with a corporate vision. Meanwhile we have a strategy for the organization but no clear picture of what we hope to achieve or where we are headed. I hope the outcome of visioning going on in my organization right now will form the basis for a future work.


1. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY


Vision isn’t necessary to make money; you can certainly create a profitable business without it. There are plenty of people who have made a lot of money, yet had no compelling vision. But if you want to do more than just make a lot of money � if you want to build an enduring, great company � then you need a vision.


If the historical evolution of great companies was examined closely � companies like IBM, L.L. Bean, Hewlett-Packard, Mckinsey & Company, Sony, McDonald, NIKE, Disney among others you will find that at some point, while the company was still relatively small, key leaders instilled a compelling vision into the organization.


1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY


In view of the great importance that a clear vision and mission statement plays in the overall performance of an organization and the last legacy the presence of such visions leave in an organization a sound and well articulated vision is a basic pre-requisite for an organization that desires to be great and stay above board.


This study will be useful to various managers and entrepreneurs of both big and small organizations who are saddled with the responsibility for steering the course of their businesses and ensuring the leave an institution that will survive them and stand the test of time.


Though these managers may be acquainted with visioning and mission statements, this study may add more to their knowledge of this topic or even raise questions which may create room for further research.


1.5 BASIS OF COMPARISON


In as much as one realizes that no attempt to compare the performance of business can provide absolute answers, however relative insight can be gained as the process of coming up with a Vision, Mission statement and a Strategy can vary from organization to organization.


It is therefore reasonable that comparisons should be made between companies with a clear vision and companies without a vision.


This writer believes is the only way the reader can fully comprehend and appreciate the impact that visioning makes on an organization.


1.6 SYNOPSIS


This work is structured in such a way that Chapter one dealt with the introduction of the research, objective and significance of study, definition of problem and also basis of comparison.


Chapter two dwells on the literature review and theoretical framework of the research.


Chapter three deals with research methodology focusing mainly on system of research.


Chapter four has its main thrust on data presentation and Analysis and finally chapter five is a brief summary, conclusion and recommendation.


REFERENCES


1. Vincent, D.R (18, March-April). Understanding Organisational Power.


Journal of Business Strategy, pp. , 40-44.


. Carlson, F.P (10, May-June). The long and short of strategic planning.


Journal of Business Strategy. pp. 11, 15-1


. Shapiro, B.P (188, November-December). What the hell is market-oriented?


Havard Business Review, 66, 11-15.


CHAPTER TWO


.1 LITERATURE REVIEW


Various researches have been carried out on the different aspect of this study, “Impact of Corporate Vision and Mission on an Organization”. Among these researches are those done by Edward O. Welles, Harold Evans, Richard Barrett, Gregory G. Dess among others.


Richard Barrett (18), while writing on “Creating Vision, Mission and Values” recognized that a well-designed vision, mission and values statements are essential for building strong, positive corporate cultures and giving an organization a strategic direction and purpose.


The “Four Why’s” process creates inspirational vision, mission and values statements that address the motivations of employees, customers and society-at-large. The vision statement describes how the organization will find fulfillment. The mission statement declares the organization’s core business and sets out its intentions with regards to meeting stakeholders needs. The values create a code of behavioral principles that support the mission and vision and build a cohesive culture.


The “Four Why’s” process offers several advantages over traditional methods


1. It separates the internal motivation from the external motivation of the organization. This gives greater focus and clarity to the mission and vision statements by specifically addressing the needs of the principal stakeholders e.g. employees, customers and society.


. It links every statement in a motivational chain. The internal mission and vision statements inspire employees. The external mission inspires customers. The external vision inspires society-at-large.


. The process allows every employee, division and department to develop mission and vision statements that are motivationally linked to the organization’s vision and mission statements. Everyone can see how their mission makes a difference I serving the greater whole.


4. The values are chosen to support the internal and external motivations.


5. The vision, mission and values drive the process of building a Balanced Needs Scorecard.





Gregory G. Dess and Alex Miller in Chapter one of their book “Strategic Management” also threw some light on the impact of corporate vision and mission statement on an organization.


The writers went on to discuss Vision and Mission in details. The focus of their study was on strategy but with emphasis on how the presence of a Vision and a Mission statement affects the formulation of corporate strategies.


In the early phases of an organization, a company’s vision comes directly from its early leaders; it is very much their personal vision. To become great, however, a company must progress past excessive dependence on one or a few key individuals. The vision must become shared as a community, and become identified primarily with the organization rather than with certain individuals running the organization. The vision must actually transcend the founders.


To illustrate this point, we like to use the powerful historical example of the founding and subsequent development of the United States. Instead of creating a country that depended on the continued presence on the then living leaders (Washington, Jefferson, Adams, et. Al.), the founders put in place a set of basic principles that would guide the country for centuries after their death.


In essence, the codified the vision of the country in the Declaration of independence and the United States Constitution. They thereby ensured that the future of the United States would come close to living up to their beliefs about how the country should run and, just as important, would not require the continued presence of these individuals.


The early leaders of America were smart by instituting the enduring principles of the constitution, they created the “glue” that would hold the country together even in the absence of a common enemy or the single “great dictator”.


It’s interesting to note that when Tom Watson, Jr. took over IBM from his father in 156, he had the constitution in mind when he took the top executives off-site to create the “Williamsburg Plan”,.


In contrast, there is the example of Duncan Syme and Vermont Castings. Syme had a vision to make the best wood stoves in the world. He believed in this so much that he would personally stand on the production line to ensure that each stove met his exact standards. During the 170s, Vermont Castings became the fastest growing company in the wood stove industry, reaching sales of $million and margins as high as 60%.


Then, in the early 180’s, Syme stepped away from daily operations and turned the company over to professional managers.


But her was a critical problem Syme’s vision went into retirement with Syme. In his absence, the company lowered quality standards, diluted its traditional focus on wood stoves, reduced customer service and, pulled the company away from its original vision. Sales and profit growth flattened, the company lost its ability to bring out innovative new products, and many felt the company had lost its greatness.


Syme returned to Vermont Casting in 186 and got it back on track, reinstalling his vision and regaining the company’s position as the premier wood stovemaker.


This time, however, he took an entirely different approach, as he explained to Inc. magazine. Instead of relying solely on himself to be the guardian of the “Vermont Castings Way”, he began a process of ensuring that it was expressed in all operational decisions.


Creating a company with a vision rather than a company with a single visionary leader on whom everything depends, is difficult for some leaders. They like being the “visionary” the hero or great leader in whom everything depends. The truly visionary managers are those who make the vision property of the entire enterprise and instill it in such a way that it remains strong and intact well after the leader departs from daily operation.


. VISION


In strategic management, a vision refers to the goals that are broadest, most general, and all-inclusive. A vision describes aspirations for the future, without specifying the means necessary to achieve those desired ends. The most effective visions are those that inspire, and this inspiration often takes the form of asking for the best, the most, or the greatest. It may be the best service, the most rugged product, or the greatest sense of achievement, but it must be inspirational. As one observer puts it, “A vision must have an appeal to the emotions and aspirations of the troops but goes beyond the usual carrots and sticks.


If they are to inspire, visions must be communicated; often, to very large number of people. Communicating a vision takes place in two ways. The most obvious is the mission statement (which will be discussed later in this chapter). A less obvious, but perhaps an even better means of communication vision is through persuasive leadership. For example the behavior of the leaders espousing any particular vision will define what is meant by the terms used in a mission statement.


Bruce Merrifield, former deputy secretary of commerce, was convinced that small businesses, especially entrepreneurial high-tech firms were important to the US economy and that the department of commerce should actively seek to encourage their development. To explain his idea, Merrifield prepared three simple charts documenting the contribution of small technology firms to the US economy. In case he had an opportunity to talk about these points away from the office, he carried a smaller version of the same charts with him when he traveled. Managers, like Merrifield see that a critical part of their role is personal involvement in communicating their vision.


. MISSION STATEMENTS


A vision becomes tangible as a mission statement. Writing such a statement specifies a leader’s beliefs about an organization and the directions in which it should move. It can also identify what is unique about the character of the organization.


Although they are still personal statements, not subject to any particlar rules regarding what they must include, mission statements usually attempt to answer several of the following questions


§ What is our reason for being? What is our basic purpose?


§ What is unique or distinctive about our organization?


§ What is likely to be different about our business to 5 years in the future?


§ Who are, or who should be, our principal customers, clients, or key market segments?


§ What are our principal products and services, present and future?


§ What are, or what should be, our principal economic concerns/


§ What are the basic beliefs, values, aspirations, and philosophical priorities of the firm?


.4 COMPONENTS OF CORPORATE VISION


A number of CEO’s have told us that they can’t seem to get their hands on what vision is. They’ve heard lots of terms like mission, purpose, values, strategic intent, but no one has given them a satisfactory way of looking at it that will transcend the morass of words and set a coherent vision for the company.


Out of this frustration comes, the Collins-Porras Vision Framework was developed (See Fig 1.1). Much of the material in this chapter is based on extensive research at Standford done by (Mcgraw.) and published in the article, “ Organizational Vision and Visionary Organizations” (California Management Review, Fall 11). We need no go into all of the theoretical underpinnings and background research of the framework here. The essence of it is that a good vision consists of


§ Core Values and Beliefs


§ Purpose


§ Mission


Vision Component 1 Core Values and Beliefs


Core values and beliefs are where vision begins. Core values and beliefs ae like ether that permeates an organization � its decisions, its policies, its actions � throughout all phases of its evolution. Some companies refer to this as their “guiding philosophy”.


They form a system of fundamental motivating principles and tenets � precepts about what is important in both business and life, how business should be conducted, its view of humanity, its role in society, the way the world works, what is to be held inviolate, and so on.


The core values and beliefs come from inside you. You, as a leader of the company, imprint your personal values and beliefs about life and business through your daily actions.


And therein lies the crucial aspect of core values and beliefs they must be an absolutely authentic extension of the values and beliefs you hold in your own gut. You don’t “set” values. The proper question isn’t, “What values and beliefs should we have?” but rather “What values and beliefs do we actually hold in our gut?”


Example of Core Values from Johnson and Johnson


§ We believe that our first responsibility is to our customers.


§ Our second responsibility is to our employees


§ Our third responsibility is to our management


§ Our fourth responsibility is to the community in which we live. We must be good Citizens.


§ Our fifth and last responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make good profit.


Vision Component Purpose


Purpose, the second primary part of a good vision, is an outgrowth of your core values and beliefs. Purpose is the fundamental reason for your company’s existence-its ultimate reason for being. Your company’s purpose dovetails with the sense of personal purpose that you and other members of the company hold deep within you, and thereby provides meaning to work.


A crucial aspect of purpose is that it’s always worked towards, but never fully achieved, like chasing the earth’s horizon or pursuing a guiding star. The enduring aspect of purpose is well illustrated by Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple and founder on NEXT


I don’t feel that I’ll ever be done. There are lots of hurdles out there, and there’s always a hurdle that I’ll never reach in my lifetime. The point is to keep working towards it.


A statement of purpose should quickly and clearly convey why your company exists, how it fills basic human needs and impact the world. A good purpose statement is broad, fundamental, inspirational, and enduring. It should serve to guide your organization for at least 100 years.


Vision Component Mission


Mission, the third key part of an effective vision, is a clear and compelling overall goal that serves as a focal point of effort.


To quickly grasp the concept of mission, think of the NASA moon mission as articulated by President Kennedy in 161


This nation should dedicate itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth.


Unlike purpose, which is never achieved, a mission is achievable. It translates values and purpose into an encrisp, clear, bold, exhilarating. It reaches out and grabs people in the gut. It requires little or no explanation; people “get it” right away. Once you reach the top, you sight again on the guiding star and pick yet another mountain to climb.


A good mission has a finish line-you must be able to know when you’ve done it, like the moon mission or a mountaintop. A good mission is risky, falling in the grey area where reason says, “This is unreasonable,” and intuition says, “But we believe we can do it nonetheless”.


.5 OBJECTIVES OF VISION AND MISSION STATEMENTS


There are several reasons why businesses write mission statements. Businesses write them so clients will know what type of business they are, so employees know what to expect from the business, or to direct future decision-making. Adrienne Lumpkin of Alternate Access, a business that helps companies that do business by phone be more efficient, believes that their mission statement is important for two reasons. Externally it helps position you with other competitors, it shows you where you fit in the market. Internally it keeps you on track and in focus. Its easy to get diverted by the latest opportunity and the mission statement keeps you on track and keeps you motivated, explains Lumpkin.


Recently, what is now Triangle United Way underwent what president Tom Dugard of the United States refers to as a marriage and needed to rewrite their mission statement to incorporate three counties. A mission statement helps us in dealing with donors, says Dugard. We needed a central focus on why we are doing what were doing. When a business is spread over a wide area, such as with banks, a mission statement gives the organization coherence. It casts in concrete the guiding principles and mission of the bank, so theres a uniform understanding, says Alex McFadyen, Jr., manager of communication for First Citizen Bank. Susan Fonville of Triangle Bank agrees that having a mission statement only directs the organization but serves the client as well. In the process of making decisions, we go back to the mission statement, she explains. Its a common way of doing business, if you stick to the mission statement, the shareholders will be protected and know what to expect. Most businesses that have mission statements agree that the importance of a mission statement lies in keeping the business focused and always productive. Cheston Mottershead, Jr., president of TCI, an organization that provides rehabilitation services for disabled individuals, says that the mission statement keeps his organization where it should be. Its like a guide post, a focal point in the distance, the direction we look at it changes but our focal point never changes, says Mottershead.


.6 BENEFITS OF CORPORATE VISION


The following are benefits of corporate vision


§ Vision forms the basis of extraordinary human efforts


§ Vision provides a context for strategic and tactical decisions


§ Shared vision creates cohesion, teamwork, and community.


§ Vision lays the groundwork for the company to evolve past dependence on a few key individuals.


REFERENCES


1. Edward O. W (1) “ A shared vision” Business Leader Online, pp. -5


. Harold Evans (10, January � February) Implementing the Vision The lessons


Learned. Planning Review, pp. 18,-44


. Richard Barret (186, Fall). What business are we really in? The question


Revisited. Sloan Management Review, pp. 5-6


4. Gregory G. D & Alex M Strategic Management. (United States Mcgraw Hill,


1), pp , 4-0


CHAPTER THREE


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


.1 SOURCES OF INFORMATION


The primary and only source of information for this study was through research into works done by various writers. From these writeup this writer was able to draw a conclusion.


.1.1 SYSTEM OF RESEARCH


The system of research for this study was based on written works by various write on this study.


.1. LIMITATION OF STUDY


This study was conducted based solely on researches carried out by other writers as stated above. It does not however mean that the writer drew her conclusion based solely on these researches. The writer was also fortunate to witness first hand at her current place of employment the impact the absence of a vision and mission statement can have on an organization.


Certain factors posed as limitations to this study. They are


1. The inability of this writer to lay her hands on works done on this study by Nigerian authors.


. At the time this research was being conducted various CEO’s the writer wanted to interview were preoccupied and couldn’t spare the time to discuss with her.


CHAPTER FOUR


RESEARCH ANALYSIS


4.1 INTRODUCTION


In this chapter, the information derived from various case studies will be analysed and a logical conclusion arrived at.


4. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS � CASE STUDIES


4..1 CASE STUDY 1 � MIPS COMPUTER


MIPS Computer was founder in the mid-180s to capitalize on significant advances in computer technology. It had over $10 million of venture capital financing, state-of-the-art technology, and the promise of growing market demand for powerful computers. Yet, four years after its founding, it was in turmoil and on the brink of bankruptcy. Why?


MIPS had no clear idea of what precisely it was trying to do. It had no clear idea of what it wanted to become. Instead, the sales department blindly pursued every revenue opportunity, without asking the question what revenue opportunities make the most sense within the context of what we are trying to achieve?


This, in turn, drove R&D to develop (at great cost) a plethora of unrelated products, without asking the question how do these products help us attain our vision? MIPS leaders pursued joint ventures that severely limited the opportunity to distribute overseas, without market fit with our vision?


Of course the couldn’t ask the question, as there was no clear vision. There was no clear vision. There was no focal point of united effort, and the organization gradually disintegrated into factions. Each faction blamed others for the perilous position of the organization. Morale declined. Good people left for better opportunities. Investors and customers lost confidence and, hence, cash flow went negative.


It took the leadership of a new CEO, Bob Miller, to save the company. Commenting on how he successfully pulled the company out of its malaise to a prominent position in the RISC Technology industry, Miller commented


“The most important question is what do you want to be five to ten years from now? The company never asked or clearly answered that question. That may seem simplistic, but posing that question was the basic solution. Only then could we make good strategic decisions”.


4.. CASE STUDY � THE UNITED STATES WAR IN VIETNAM


In terms of tactics and logistic, the United states Army was successful in Vietnam. Over a million Soldiers a year were transported to and from Vietnam, and they were sustained in the field better than an army in history.


In tactical engagements, the army had an extraordinary success rate, with enemy forces thrown back with terrible losses in engagement after engagement. Even so, it was North Vietnam that emerged victorious. How could the United state have succeeded so well, yet failed so miserably?


The reason was quite simple. The confusion over objectives had a devastating effect on the United States ability to conduct the war. The principals never defined either the mission or the number of troops. It seems incredible in retrospect, but it was the truth. Hence, there was no clear demonstration of what the strategy would be. Without this clarity of aim, it would have been absolutely impossible to even have a strategy in the first place.


4.. CASE STUDY � STRATEGIC SOFTWARE, INC


Founded in 176 with no outside venture financing, Strategic Software’s founders were dedicated to building a company that would provide excellent software products, financial stability for employees and owners, and a stimulating work environment. For the first seven years, employees and managers worked twelve-hour days in tiny cubicles. “It was us against the world” explained one of the founders. “We were a great team then”.


Gradually, year-by-year, the company attained financial success (reaching $5


Million in annual revenue with healthy profit margins) and a stable customer base. In 18, it moved to a prestigious office complex with modern sculptures, perfectly manicured green lawns, water ponds, thick carpets, handcrafted cherry-wood furniture, and its own parking lot.


Then the whole place fell apart. What happened, of course, is that the organization had fulfilled its firs big mission (to reach a point where survival was no longer a question). It seemed like there was nothing more to work for. It had arrived. Its leaders should have created a new mission, but they didn’t. And the organization stagnated, eventually putting itself up for sale.


REFERENCES


1. Gregory G. D & Alex M Strategic Management. (United States Mcgraw Hill,


1), pp 11-1


. Harold Evans (10, January � February) Implementing the Vision The lessons


Learned. Planning Review, pp. 46-48


. Carlson, F.P (10, May-June). The long and short of strategic planning.


Journal of Business Strategy. pp. 1


CHAPTER FIVE


SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.


5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


I would like to dispel the myth that setting a vision requires that you be should somehow with almost mystical or super-human charismatic visionary qualities. To believe this myth, every organization would need a CEO who is a cross between Churchill, Kennedy, and Martin Luther King. Indeed, many managers respond to the notion of vision by thinking, “It’s not for me. I don’t fit the stereotypical mold of a visionary.”


But it is for you, no matter what your style or personal magnetism. Charisma’s role in setting vision is vastly overrated. Some of the folks that have instilled extraordinary vision in companies didn’t bowl us over with charisma. Bob Miller of MIPS, Bill Hewlett of HP, even Abraham Lincoln doesn’t fit the stereotype of charismatic visionary.


The task before you is not to be a single charismatic individual with a vision. The task is to build an organization with vision. Individuals die; great companies can live fro centuries.


5. RECOMMENDATIONS


Corporate vision provides a context within which people at all levels can make decisions. The importance of this cannot be overemphasized.


A shared vision is like having a compass and distant destination in the mountains. If you give a group of people a compass and destination, they will probably figure out a way to get there.


They may encounter obstacles, detours, bad turns, and side canyons along the way. However, with the general directions of the compass, a clear end-goal, and the belief that they are working towards a worthy destination, they will probably reach the target.


In contrast, companies without a shared overall aim have no context, and their people wander aimlessly in the side canyons and take detours to nowhere. Such companies resemble overworked fire departments, with people responding to crises and revenue opportunities as they emerge, rather than proactively making decisions within a coherent conception of what the organization is ultimately trying to do.


Corporate vision forms the foundation that directs all the activities, policies, and objectives of the organization. It defines in clear terms the business of the organization as stated in the mission statement. This forms the basis for channeling all the resources of the organization.


5. CONCLUSION


The writer does not mean to imply that vision is necessary only if you want to become big. It is understandable that a company might want to remain a small company. If that’s what you want, then you still need a vision. Why? Because if you’re good, there will be opportunities to grow. The only way to remain small or big if that’s what you want is to have a clear vision about what you want the company to be in the first place.


All organizations need to ask themselves where they intend to be X years from now. Only then can they make good strategic decisions. Strategy is impossible without first setting a vision.


Don’t get me wrong. I don’t mean to imply that tactical excellence (as illustrated in the Case study of the United States Vs. Vietnam) is unimportant. It’s essential, but it should be within the context of a clear overall vision. Vision, then strategy, then tactics.


REFERENCES


1. Richard Barret The power of Purpose (London Macmillian, 18), pp. 10-15


. David K. Hurst Crisis & Renewal Meeting the challenges of Organizational


Change (Havard Business School Press, 15), p








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Saturday, February 18, 2012

The Significance of the Insignificance in Photos

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The Significance of the Insignificance in Photos


Upon examination of a photograph by Walker Evans and one by Jewel Stern, the viewer can easily see how the photographers use ordinary scenes to display the continuity and monotony of everyday life and the insignificance of the “little people.”


“Building Facade,” a 6 ¾” x 8 ½” gelatin silver print by Walker Evans, taken in 14, is a black and white photo of what appears at first glance to be just a picture of a building with some people in front of it going about their everyday business. The photo looks as if it was taken from across the street, as if Evans was in the third or fourth floor of another building. The shadowing in the photo makes the bottom right corner of the picture look really dark and the rest of the photo is semi-dark, with the focus of light being just left to the center of the photo, emphasizing a worker unloading a truck. Ironically, the area that the light is focused on is the only area of the photo that is blurry. Besides the worker, there are other people who are probably just pedestrians and shoppers. The bottom floor of the building is all stores and the rest of the building is just rows and rows of windows. The building looks dark and gloomy, towering over the people, casting a huge, dominating shadow on them. Although the photo looks as if it is just a random, true-to-life representation, a hidden meaning lies behind it�a meaning similar to the one behind “Tosca Bakery” by Jewel Stern.


“Tosca Bakery” is an 8” x 1” ecta-color type C print of a 18 bakery window. The photo looks as if it was taken from a position right in front of the window, with no focal point. But because it is picture of a window, the reflection from the glass makes the entire picture look blurry. At first, one might think that this is just a bad picture, but after speculation, one can see that Stern purposely wanted the picture to look blurry�that is why it is a photo of a window. Inside this window, like inside almost any bakery window, one can see different types of cakes on display on the bottom shelf. However, the viewer tends to notice the many rows of Looney Toons characters, directly above the cakes. Neatly lined up are numerous figurines of Sylvester, Bugs Bunny, Speedy Gonzalez, and various other well known characters from the cartoons. The browns, yellows, and similar earth colors of the characters’ clothing stand out to capture the viewer’s eye.


Cheap University Papers on The Significance of the Insignificance in Photos




Similar to “Building Facade,” “Tosca Bakery” appears to be a simple photo of what people see in their ordinary, everyday lives�both scenes that anyone can see on any given day. However, a closer look at both photos reveals the artists’ intentions at taking the photographs. When looking at “Building Facade,” the viewer’s eyes move in a direction from left to right, starting at the top left corner, and take in the continuous rows of window after window. Similarly, in “Tosca Bakery,” the same type of row after row (this time of Looney Toons characters figurines) takes the viewer’s eyes. Both artists seem to be depicting the monotony of life. By taking scenes that are already so common to everyday life and adding a touch of something so repetitive (the windows and figurines), the artists put an emphasis on the triviality and insignificance of life.


Unlike the “Tosca Bakery,” “Building Facade” has people in the picture. These people are going out their daily activities, the shoppers in the shadows and the worker illuminated. However, they are tiny compared to the grandiose size of the building. The people are barely noticeable, taking up about a half inch of the picture in comparison to the building, which takes up the entire photograph. Evans could be trying to convey the idea that people are insignificant�since they look insignificant in this photo (even the title does not allude to the people). The worker, who is an important part of American society, is illuminated, making it seem as if he is important. However, his image appears blurred and obscure, which also contributes to the idea of insignificance. Therefore, one might interpret this effect to be saying that the job that one holds is trivial. People work for a living, to support their families so they can have a nice life, but if the work they do is trivial, then perhaps the reason why they work�life�is trivial also.


This same idea of triviality can also be seen in the “Tosca Bakery.” The display in the window shows how commercial America is. A bakery is marketing toys for a known cartoon production. But shouldn’t a bakery sell just baked goods? So why the unnecessary accessories? One might perceive this photo to be a representation of what a money market America has become. The United States has come to a day in age where places like car dealerships have to entice its customers by having live radio broadcasts and free food, and similarly, a bakery has to have toys to sell to bring in the little kids who will then ask mommy to buy some cookies. This form of marketing shows how the United States has become a place where the major concern is how to make more money; forget about the well-being of the people, just focus on more profits. And when businesses get that frame of mind, people like the worker and the shoppers (like those in Evans’s “Building Facade”) are the ones who get looked over, the insignificant, unimportant ones.


Although both photos differ in color, location, and time period, they both appear to be replications of seemingly insignificant aspects of life while actually conveying messages of seemingly high importance�the monotony of daily life (which is a result of the level of importance that is placed upon business and economy) and ultimately results in the insignificance of the people.





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Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Team Diversity

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I feel value and attitude differences in our team will create a positive impact on our groups effectiveness. The diversity on our team brings to the group innovative thinkers from all types of educational and workplace backgrounds.


The team created originates from all across the United States and groups together


via the University Of Phoenix, an online University that promotes organizational team relationships for its education experience.


In a team oriented environment values play a big part of how members fill that culture with self-disciplined people who are willing to go the extra mile to fulfill their responsibilities. Values are defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. (University Of Phoenix On Line, E-Text pp.6). Values play a big part on how people think and make decisions. Some examples of values that make a team successful are things like competitiveness objectivity, respect, energy, vision, attitude, leadership, understanding, and excellence. Whether or not people on a team think introverted or extraverted the individual who can have the discipline to pay attention to small detail and the big picture says a lot about that person. To add to that, this is the type of people I feel who are on Team “A”. (“ When you have disciplined people, you don’t need hierarchy. When you have discipline thought, you don’t need bureaucracy. When you have disciplined action, you don’t need excessive controls.”). (Jim Collins, http//www.attitude-leaders.com).


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Another form of diversity on our team consists of different attitudes. Attitude is defined as a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. (University Of Phoenix On line E-Text pp 6-6). I feel that our team accepts criticism well and adapts, learns and overcomes differences in attitudes. A well diverse team such as ours is a recipe for a high performance team. We may have some members of Team A who bring to the table different skill levels different leadership abilities and different socioeconomic backgrounds. This type of diverse team can combine these essential ingredients and together with core values be very successful.


References


University of Phoenix On line E-text pp.6-6


Collins, Jim, Http//www.attitude- leaders.com





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Tuesday, February 14, 2012

dont have one to send

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dont have one to send McDonalds On The Worldwide Web!


Forty three years after opening our first restaurant in Des Plaines, Illinois, we are proud to come to you on the World Wide Web. Did you know that McDonalds.com receives millions and millions of hits every week? Visit the McDonalds Worldwide Web page.





Company/ Industry profile


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McDonalds...


Is the worlds leading food service retailer with more than 0,000 restaurants in 11 countries serving 46 million customers each day.


Is one of the worlds most well-known and valuable brands and holds a leading share in the globally branded quick service restaurant segment of the informal eating-out Fred Turner And Ray Kroc, Architects Of A Dream


Here Ray Kroc (right) and Fred Turner study the design which would replace the red and white tile buildings that had become landmarks throughout the U.S. Called Krocs first grill man extraordinaire, Turner is today Senior Chairman of the Board.


McDonalds Comes To Wall Street


In 165 McDonalds went public with the companys first offering on the stock exchange. A hundred shares of stock costing $,50 dollars that day would have multiplied into 74,60 shares today, worth over $.8 million on December 1, 18. In 185 McDonalds was added to the 0-company Dow Jones Industrial Average


A Big Idea Called Big Mac


Introduced systemwide in 168, the Big Mac was the brainchild of Jim Delligatti, one of Ray Krocs earliest franchisees, who by the late 160s operated a dozen stores in Pittsburgh.


The Egg McMuffin


Introduced in 17, the Egg McMuffin was developed by owner operator Herb Peterson.


he First Ronald McDonald House in Philadelphia, PA


In 174 Fred Hill of the Philadelphia Eagles teamed up with McDonalds to create Ronald McDonald House. Here the families of critically ill children have a place to call home while theyre away from home as the young patients undergo treatment for their conditions.


Kuwait City, Kuwait


Kuwait City is pretty far from Des Plaines, Illinois, but that didnt stop 15,000 customers from lining up here on opening day in 14. The line at the drive thru was seven miles long. Proving once again that Good Times, Great Taste is understandable in any language. Surf The World at mcdonalds.com to see McDonalds in other countries. section.


market in virtually every country in which we do business.


Over the next 1 to 18 months, McDonalds will build a rock-solid foundation that can deliver reliable top-line and bottom-line growth, and improve returns on invested capital. Mcdonald’s will achieve there objectives through disciplined action focused on five drivers of a superior customer experience -- People, Products, Place, Price and Promotion.


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Friday, February 10, 2012

The Effects of Racial Prejudice on Modern Society.

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Today most people think that racial prejudice does not affect them. Most people believe that they are very accepting of other cultures and give everyone a chance. However it is surprising how subtle yet prevalent the effects of racial prejudice are on modern society.


During the 18th and early 1th centuries, racial prejudice was rife against black people. The most well known incidences are against African people who were first brought to America as slaves. Because they were slaves they were treated with much contempt and continually discriminated against, suffering the most inhumane atrocities.


Not only did African people suffer such prejudices but also the Aborigines people when the English came to Australia. They were treated with much the same contempt and also suffered they loss of there home being taken away from them, just because they were not the same nationality as the English people.


Much prejudice was also shown to the Chinese people during the gold rush in Australia also. They were excluded from social activities, were not lowed to be employed and were given minimal privileges within the gold mines. These people were also the victims of racial prejudice.


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There were countless more incidences worldwide and there still are of racial prejudice. It is an attitude that has been instilled into human kind and is continually manifested in modern society. And when this attitude rears its ugly head, it has disastrous effects, usually causing many deaths and an ongoing battles to prove which race is superior. When in fact there is no superior race, only people.


The most well known conquest to find the most superior race would have to be Adolf Hitlers efforts during the second world war. Filled with racial prejudice he was determined that the German people were more superior than any other race in Germany and he made it his goal to eradicate all those who were not of German background or did not hold the same beliefs as himself. Yet his efforts were in vain as he would never be able to prove such theory, because all people are equal.


Today racial prejudice is not so blatant as it used to be, due to many people realising that all people are equal and there is no need to exclude those that are not of the same race. Yet there are many ways in which racial prejudice proves to still be common today.


Firstly there is language. The English language gives a wide scope for so called nicknames to be used when naming other nationalities of people. While these particular nicknames can be used in good fun, to most it is actually quite offensive. The English language also gives way to many racially oriented jokes. Not only can they be highly offensive but encourage racial prejudice among even the most open-minded people.


Secondly there is ignorance. People in society prefer to ignore the fact that they are racially prejudice toward other races, sticking to the belief that if it is ignored then it doesn’t exist and that they can’t be expected to like everyone. Thus most people carry on about their daily business always making conscience choices to avoid facing the issue of racial prejudice.


Today there is much division in society. There are gangs and social clubs which directly exclude certain races. Once a remark is made it can allow for a retaliation on the other races part. This situation can be seen in Perth between certain gangs of different races, who end up fighting and killing one another because of one racist remark.


Most parents today still hold racial attitudes that were instilled into them as children. While modern society is struggling to eradicate racial prejudice, it can be found that racial prejudice is being passed on from parents to their children. Thus the continuation of an ongoing cycle that is hard to break. Children with the negative beliefs of other races pass these onto their peers within the classroom. Creating grounds for bullying and segregation amongst children.


Obviously the effects of racial prejudice on modern society is quite damaging and has a negative effect on society, causing all sorts of problems. Yet just as it is impossible to enforce world peace, it is the same with racial prejudice. It is unstoppable yet every effort should be made to keep it as slight as possible, because all people have the right to be free from racial prejudice.





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Tuesday, February 7, 2012

historical background of The Murder in the Cathedral

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The Rock was an essential step in T.s Eliots theatrical apprenticeship.In it he taught himself how to write choral lines in greek fashion and in the style of the english morality playsEveryman.A request for a pageant play to raise funds for church building started Eliot off on his quest for a modern poetic drama.The effectiveness of the Rockchoruses ensured that the device would become an important feature of Murder in the Cathedral,although in the later the effects were more varied and dramatic.


The Canterbury Festival had begun in 18 with John Masefields The Coming of Christ.Canterbury was not only the arch-diocese of the country ;it was the most ancient Christian shrine in the land ,santified by the hooly blisful man whose cult was the reason for Chaucers Canterbury Piligrims journey.When George Bell, Bishop of Chicester, invited Eliot to write for the 15 Canterbury Festival the poet still chose the martyr for his subject despite a 1- production of Tennysons play.


The conditions were congenial to Eliot.He had a Christian subject and a Christian audience to be gathered at one of Europes most famous Christian shrines.He had a director withwhom he could work, and he had the chance to further the cause of poetic drama.The topic martyrdom attracted Eliot ,as did the nature of the events and its significance for a modern audience. That significance was brought out through the choruses, and the emotional structure of the play is based on them rather than on Thomass exercise in self-analysis.For that was the point of the Festival;the ordinary human response to the exceptional events, the martyrdom which repeats and reminds us of Christs own sacrifice. Ritually the play comments a fresh on an act whose meaning may have been lost in the familiarity of the outward story.


The play had the advantage of referring to a well-known, highly dramatic story of a confrontation between two powerful personalities, both historically and spiritually significant.The story was taught to all as a central myth of teh english nation. although Eliot chose not to focus his action upon the conflict of king and chancellor it broods over the play, putting pressures on Thomas and making the spiritual dilemma rael by providing it with its context in this world; the struggle between Henry and Thomas is embedded in the fabric of Eliots play despite its not being the action itself. The use of an historical subject facilitated the invention of a modern verse play partly because an audience accepts heightened expression as natural to historical settings.


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