Sunday, July 31, 2011

Biography of Steven Speilberg

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Steven Spielberg.


Steven Spielberg was born on December 18 in 164 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The movie that had the greatest influence on Spielberg was David Lean’s “Lawrence of Arabia”. When Spielberg was 1 he won first prize for a fully scripted 40-minute war movie, which was titled “Escape to Nowhere. At age 16 he made a and a half-hour long movie about scientists investigating mysterious lights in the sky called Firelight, (the inspiration for close encounters). This movie was considered one of the most inspirational movies of his film career.


In the summer of 65, Spielberg took a bus tour of the Universal Studios snuck off, found an abandoned janitors office and became a squatter. He came to the Universal studios everyday in a suit and tie and pretended to work at Universal Studios. This is how he learned about the film industry.


At the age of 4 Spielberg made a 4-minute movie about two hitchhikers, which titled Ambling. It had won him several awards and got the attention of Universal Studios. He was hired by Sidney Steinberg and given a seven-year TV contract. In 174 Spielberg made his first feature film called “The Sugar Land Express” In 175 Spielberg was given the chance to direct the adaptation of Peter Bentley’s novel “Jaws”. “Jaws” grossed over $10 million and was an overnight success in the U.S.


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Spielberg’s career rocketed in 18 with the release of the blockbuster hit E.T. In 184 Spielberg created his own production company, which is called Ambling, after his first professional film. At this time Spielberg was the richest man in Hollywood and began producing a wide range of films and T.V series such as E.R, Tiny Toons, and Cape Fear. Spielberg owns % of DreamWorks, 50% of restaurant chain Dive, and 15% of Internet content, idea lab. These give Spielberg an estimated value of one billion dollars.


Spielberg first married in 17 to Amy Irving and had one child together which they named Max. Spielberg and his wife divorced in 18. Spielberg’s second marriage was to Cate Capshaw in 11. He met her while casting for “Indiana Jones Temple Of Doom”. They had three children together, adopted two more and both had one from a previous marriage.


Spielberg has worked with hundreds of actors, actresses, directors, and producers and makes up artists, but still remains a modest and private person. He is one the most respected people in the history of television and movies. At the age of 5 he is still enjoying an incredibly successful career, a happy family life and large wealth.


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Saturday, July 30, 2011

Bean Trees

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The Bean Trees takes place in rural Pittman County, Kentucky, in the 180s and its narrator is Marietta Greer, a young woman from an impoverished family. She begins the novel with an admission that she has always been afraid of putting an air in a tire ever since she saw a tractor tire blow up and send Newt Hardbines father flying over the top of the Standard Oil sign. Although her name is Marietta, her Mama has called her Missy for years, ever since she was a three year old and demanded to be called Miss Marietta just as her Mama called her employers (the name soon shortened to Missy).


Although not an outstanding student in high school, Marietta stays out of trouble and does well enough. By her senior year she is one of the few girls not to drop out of school, and feels it is the girls special reward to get the science teacher Mr. Hughes Walter, a blond northerner who resembles Paul McCartney. Mr. Walter changes Mariettas life when he tells his students about a possible job opening at the hospital where his wife works. Marietta thinks that he will offer the job to a Candy Striper, but Mama insists that Marietta demand the opportunity and tell Hughes Walter that she is the best person for the job, even if he has already given it to a Candy Striper. When Marietta confronts Hughes Walter, he immediately gives her the job, for she is the first person to ask about it.


At the laboratory in the hospital where she works, her supervisor (Eddie Rickett) treats her well and teaches her a great deal about working in the lab. During her first week at the hospital, Jolene Shanks, the wife of Newt Hardbine, comes into the hospital in a stretcher, covered in blood and fighting and cursing. Although she had been shot, she was screaming at her husband. In another stretcher, this one meant for the coroners office, is her husband. Marietta attempts to console Jolene, and when she asks Jolene why Newt? she answers that her father had been calling her a slut since she was thirteen, so why the hell not? Although Marietta considers quitting after this incident, she decides to stay at the hospital, thinking that she has seen the worst. When she tells her mother this, she replies I have never seen the likes of you.


Marietta stays in the job for five and a half years, but she develops a plan to leave Pittman County. When she first buys a car, a 55 Volkswagen bug with no windows and no starter, Mama immediately knows that shell use this car to get away. Eventually, when Marietta leaves Pittman, she makes two promises to herself one that she keeps, and one that she does not. The First she decides to get herself a new name she chooses the name Taylor after going past Taylorville. The second promise is to drive west until her car stopped running and stay there. Her car gives out in the middle of a Cherokee reservation when the steering wheel stops working. A man called Bob Two Two fixes her car, and he charges her nearly half the money she has. Taylor has one eighth Cherokee blood, and her Mama had always claimed that she could claim head rights because of this, if she ever needed to do so, but going to the Cherokee Nation, she now sees, is not even acceptable as a worst case scenario.


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While staying the night in the town on the Indian reservation, Taylor goes to a diner and writes a postcard to her mother. There are only two men at the counter, a white guy and an Indian. The cowboy, Earl, makes a joke when Taylor asks if there is anything at the diner for less than a dollar, but Taylor quickly reprimands him. There is a woman in the bar at the back who looks frightened. After Taylor leaves the diner and returns to her car, the woman, an Indian, follows her and tells her to take her baby. She warns her not to take the child back to the diner, indicating some unimaginable harm that could be done to her. Taylor argues with her, claiming that she cant take the baby because she doesnt have the papers, but the woman says that nobody knows that the baby is alive or cares. Finally Taylor takes the child; she does not know whether the child is a boy or a girl, and even wonders at one point whether it is still alive.





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Friday, July 29, 2011

JIT (Just In Time)

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Just-in-time (JIT) is a operations system that has evolved in many ways throughout the years. When it was first introduced in the late 170’s, it was an approach to eliminate waste in manufacturing. Today, JIT is a set of principles that can help an organization successfully operate a competitive business. JIT focuses on reducing inefficiency and unproductive time in processes to improve continuously the process of the products or services that is being produced. The goal of JIT is to produce goods and services as needed and to continuously improve the value-added benefits of operations. It is the belief that by eliminating waste, cutting unnecessary inventory and removing non-value adding activities; an organization can reduce cost and improve quality. This essay will examine three companies (Ford, Toyota and Cessna) and how they have taken the basics of JIT and used them to succeed. This essay will also show how other areas in operations management must be improved upon in order for an organization to successfully implement the JIT system.


In order to manufacture a product or service a process needs to be defined. No product or service can exist without a process, such as no process can exist with a product or service. The process that you select effects many areas and is something that is of extreme importance. It is also something that is going to be implemented over an extended amount of time. Some main areas that are effected by the process chosen are costs, quality and delivery. When Toyota defined their process system, they came up with a concept that has become an example for others to follow.


Toyota Production System (TPS) is one of the most admired lean manufacturing systems in existence. Lean systems require constant improvements to increase efficiency and reduce waste. What Toyota did was take this concept and defined a set of tools and procedures and then built a learning organization for its employees. Toyota created a process system that encourages employees to experiment with their environment by finding alternative solutions whenever things go wrong. Toyota sets up all operations as experiments and teaches employees at all levels how to use the scientific method of problem solving. Working with a teacher is an important factor of the learning organization. Employees learn the scientific method and eventually become teachers themselves. The employees who actually perform the work are involved in making improvements. With given the opportunity to try, various problems become known and able to be solved before they effect the process. With this type of process management, the JIT philosophy is enforced and Toyota is able to continuously improve quality, customer satisfaction, and employee involvement.


The management of technology is another factor that effects JIT. Many people view the success of an organization but the amount of technology it has available to them. This is not necessarily the case. The organization needs to be able to manage the technology in such a way that benefits the organization. To effectively manage technology, management must join together such departments as engineering and R&D and strategically develop a system that can utilize the technological capabilities that exist and carry out corporate and operations strategies. Organizations obtain new technologies to reduce such things as costs, labor involvement and lead-time. New technology also improves quality which results in process improvements-both key factors in JIT. If the technology is not managed in the right manner, it can not deliver the performance that is expected.


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Ford Corporation has an assembly plant that is a fine example of managing new technology. At this plant, an outside supplier manufactures the seats. The supplier assigns a sequence number to each delivery, and assembles the seats for delivery by style and color. The truck also delivers the correct amount needed for one hour’s worth of production. The seats are fed from the delivery truck by conveyors to the assembly line in sequence, with no human involvement. A photo sensor determines when the last seat has been unloaded and when it is time to reload the empty pallets back onto the empty truck. While this technology may not be “state of the art”, it supports the continuous flow of production and materials throughout the plant and reduces costs and excess inventory. The plant assembles the necessary quantity in needs for a specific amount of time and does not go above or below what is expected. This management of technology has made Ford utilize the technology available to help them implement JIT in a fashion that works best for them.


Total Quality Management (TQM) is most likely the main ingredient of JIT. While there are many other factors that help contribute to a successful JIT process, TQM is the philosophy that stresses three basic principles-customer satisfaction, employee involvement, and continuous improvements in quality. TQM should be at the center of every organization, whether they provide a product or service. Earlier, we pointed out how Toyota encompasses these principles to implement a process that is considered the best in its industry. To show how TQM can be successfully implemented in the service industry, I recall my employment at Amica Insurance Company.


As an underwriter representative, my job was to answer the calls of customers looking for an automobile or home policy, and to answer the questions from our existing policyholders. The philosophy at Amica was based on TQM. Amica had an aggressive training program and continuously provided training to its employees throughout their career there. Every three to six months the employees had to be trained in a specific area in which they did not have experience in, or trained in an area in which they did not exceed. The management was constantly involved with making sure that the employees improved their knowledge of the policies and procedures. This type of training ensured Amica that the customer would be provided with highly trained representatives when they called, thus improving the quality of the customer service they received. This aggressive approach also allowed Amica to continuously improve the service they provided to its customers. Amica incorporates their business on their reputation with such concepts as ‘word of mouth” advertising. This type of advertising is largely dependent on customer satisfaction and quality. With Amica being around since 107, we can see that it has certainly paid off.











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Thursday, July 28, 2011

Claes Oldenberg

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Claes Oldenburg


The son of a Swedish diplomat, Oldenburg was born in 1 in Stockholm. When he was an infant, the family moved to the United States, settling for a time in New York but eventually moving to Chicago.


After attending Yale University from 146 to 150, Oldenburg returned to Chicago, where he worked as a cub newspaper reporter and took courses at the Art Institute of Chicago. In 156, he moved to New York City, where he came into contact with Jim Dine, Red Grooms, Allan Kaprow, and others, whose theatrically based art posed an alternative to the prevailing influence of Abstract Expressionist painting.


The radical experiments of these artists involved the creation of environments for their performances, called Happenings, which were partly scripted, partly spontaneous theatrical events that, Oldenburg says, broke down barriers between the arts and something close to an actual experience.


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Theater is the most powerful art form there is because it is the most involving.... I no longer see the distinction between theater and visual arts very clearly... distinctions I suppose are a civilized disease.


--Oldenburg, 16


Oldenburgs practice of situating objects within an environment, sometimes created as a context for theater, has remained to the present day a mainstay of his artistic approach.


Born in 1 at Stockholm. The son of a Swedish Consul General, he came to Chicago in 16. After finishing his studies at Yale University, New Haven, he started to work as a reporter. In 15 he attended a course at the Chicago Art Institute, published drawings in several magazines and began to paint pictures influenced by Abstract Expressionism. In 156 he moved to New York and came into contact with Jim Dine. In 158 he met Alan Kaprow and took part in his Happenings. In 158-5 he arranged his first sculptural, Neo-Dadaist assemblages of plaster and garbage soaked in striking colors. These led to his environments (The Street, The Store etc.). He also started at this time to make replicas of foods like hamburgers, ice-cream and cakes, which prepared the ground for his soft sculptures. In 164 and 168 he was represented at the Venice Biennale, and in 168 and 17 at the documenta 4 and documenta 5, Kassel. In 17 he arranged his Mouse Museum. A comprehensive retrospective of his projects, documents and sketches was shown at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 16. He was given a retrospective in 170 by the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. From 176 he collaborated on large-scale projects with Coosje van Bruggen, whom he married in 177. He was represented at the documenta 6, 177, and documenta 7, 18, at Kassel. He was given a retrospective of his drawings in 177 by the Moderna Museet, Stockholm, and the Kunsthalle Tübingen. His environment Mouse Museum/Ray Gun Wing was arranged in 17 at the Museum Ludwig, Cologne. In 18 he made his large sculpture of a toothbrush for the Museum Haus Esters, Krefeld. In 184 he made his proposals for the large project The Course of the Knife for Venice, which was then shown in collaboration with the architect Frank OGehry at the Campo dellArsenale, accompanied by performances which he took part in himself. He then went on to collaborate with Gehry on other projects related to architecture, e.g. in Boston and Los Angeles. In 18 the Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Duisburg, organized the exhibition Claes Oldenburg - Coosje van Bruggen, A Bottle of Notes and Some Voyages.


I am for an art that is political-erotic-mystical, that does something else than sit on its ass in a museum. -- Claes Oldenburg, 161


In the early 160s, when pop art detonated in New York City, it blasted the dreary earnestness right out of the art world (at least for a few seconds). When it first hit, pop was the rock-and-roll of art (and rock was still an angry toddler). Like rock, it reset the culture clock, rewrote the rules, recast the performers -- awop-bop-a-loo-bop-awop-bam-boom! And after the fluorescent dust settled and the glimmering, giggling debris stopped bouncing around, out of the ground-zero crater crawled pop arts own Fab Four Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist and, last but most, Claes Oldenburg.


Oldenburg, who turns 70 on Jan. , has spent much of his life bending, inflating, melting and enlarging the ordinary objects of 0th century American reality. Over the last four decades, Oldenburg has made it his business to soften the hard, harden the soft and transmute the modest into the monumental. He has created shirts and ties and dresses and ice cream cones and pies, and even the contents of an entire store, out of plaster-soaked cloth and wire. Using vinyl stuffed with kapok, he built pay telephones, typewriters, light switches and a complete bathroom -- sink, tub, scale and toilet. He constructed a catchers mitt, 1 feet tall, out of metal and wood, and built a four-and-a-half-story clothespin out of Cor-Ten steel. In the last two decades, focusing almost exclusively on giant monuments, he has created a 8-foot-tall flashlight, a 10-story baseball bat, a 60-foot-long umbrella, a three-story-high faucet with a 440-foot water-spewing red hose, a 40-foot-tall book of matches and a partially buried bicycle that would fill most of a football field, among numerous other projects located from Tokyo to Texas.


The main reason for the colossal objects is the obvious one, to expand and intensify the presence of the vessel -- the object, Oldenburg has said. Perhaps I am more a still-life painter -- using the city as a tablecloth. At another time he remarked, Because my work is naturally non-meaningful, the meaning found in it will remain doubtful and inconsistent -- which is the way it should be. All that I care about is that, like any startling piece of nature, it should be capable of stimulating meaning.


It works. His eccentric props make the so-called real world seem like an absurd stage for the truly real life being played out in Oldenburg Land. In the case of his 14 piece Shuttlecocks, for example, the artist installed four 17-foot-tall badminton birdies on the sweeping lawn surrounding the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Mo. At first glance, the effect is not so much that youre looking at Brobdingnagian birdies, but that a tiny Beaux-Arts building has been rudely plopped in the middle of the badminton court, and that any moment a hand will remove the toy structure so the game can continue.


The still-prolific Oldenburg has also managed to eroticize the most unlikely of subjects. His Soft Switches (164), a 4-foot-square drooping double light switch constructed of orange vinyl filled with Dacron and canvas, resembles nothing so much as Marilyn Monroe oozing out of an evening gown -- a light switch that looks fully capable of singing Happy Birthday, Mr. President. Likewise, his Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks (16), a 5-foot-tall phallic-shaped cosmetic mounted on what looks like a battle vehicle, evokes both male and female sexuality, while unmistakably referencing the Vietnam War, which was still raging when the piece was installed at Yale University.


Man-made things do look like human beings, he has said, symmetrical, visage-like, body-like. What I see is not the thing itself, but myself in its form. Yes, Oldenburg was morphing before morphing was cool. He possesses an uncanny associative vision, an ability to see in one thing the image of another; to imagine how one form might become the next -- a natural instinct for topology. Thus a faucet is turned into a cathedral, a fireplug into a skyscraper; a colossal drainpipe is the source of a waterfall; an immense spoon serves as a bridge; a human nose becomes a gigantic tunnel; Swedish Knäckebröd crackers are bitten off to make buildings of different heights; an elephant head is also an outboard motor and a Swiss army knife is transformed into a medieval Venetian rowing galley, with silver oars protruding from its great red body.


Enormous clothespins are funny, of course. But Oldenburg has done more than give us a laugh. As Robert Hughes wrote in American Visions, The aspects of pop that lasted best are the very ones its bright hardheadedness was supposed to have expelled -- namely, mystery and metaphor. Here, the outstanding figure was Claes Oldenburg. And still is.


In 156 he moved on to New York and met Jim Dine, Allan Kaprow, Red Grooms and others, who posed an alternative to the influence of Abstract Expressionism, with their Happenings a form of art which was theatrically based.


These happenings were performances partly scripted and partly improvised. Oldenburg saw this form of art as powerful, because it is the most involving for the viewer. He said that it breaks barriers between art and actual experience.


158/5 saw his first Neo-Dadaist sculptures. They were pieces of plaster and garbage strikingly coloured. After these came the soft sculptures.


Following this, many exhibitions came devoted to Claes Oldenburg, and he had made a name for himself as an Artist. From 176 he went on to a more ambitious style, by collaborating with Coosje Van Bruggen on monumental scultpures. In 177, Van Bruggen and Oldenburg married. He also collaborated with architect Frank O’Gehry, with the large project The Course of the Knife in Venice. Oldenburg collaborated again with O’Gehry.


Oldenburg is still coming up with ideas for sculptures, in 16 came the Torn Notebook.


Oldenburgs work seems to remain as intriguing now as it ever was. A lot can be read from an individual sculpture, as well as what can be read from the style, the very fact that such a household object was changed by Oldenburg. His sculptures show objects that we can easily recognise, they stay true to the real thing while representing, and provoking thought in other things as well.


Vinyl and canvas, stuffed with foam rubber, painted wood, metal on wood base covered with Formica; chrome metal railing; instruments (15 pieces), 84 high x 7 wide x 48 deep, 167


Claes Oldenburgs exhibit in the East Wing of the National Gallery is a thought provoking assembly of forms. All of Oldenburgs pieces gathered at the gallery fit together and compliment each other extremely well. I meandered through the exhibit, eyes wide and mouth open, my mind quickly processing the art that lay before me. His pieces are reinforced and made interesting by the drafts included in the exhibit. I strolled from draft to revision, drawing to sculpture and final end product. I read each summary of the pieces, amazed at the stimulation I felt by understanding his thought process as I learned how he worked out each piece.


When I first encountered Soft Drum Set, I perceived the piece to be a study of contradiction. I had discussed with a friend Giant Saw-Hard Version, a sculpture of an oversized, true to life handsaw which was propped up against a wall and bent with hinges. We had questioned how this saw could ever possibly work; saws were supposed to be hard, and that is why and how they did their job of cutting through hard materials. As I studied Soft Drum Set, still very early in my tour of the gallery, I made similar conclusions about the piece as I had to Giant Saw-Hard Version. Before I read the summary of the work, I decided that this Oldenburg fellow had a peculiar sense of humor. Again I questioned how this melted drum set could possibly make a sound, the flexible drumsticks could never tap out a beat against the cushiony drumheads.


I then read the summary of the piece and discovered that Oldenburg had based the sculpture on the mountainous landscape of Colorado. The silhouette of the melted drum set was indeed a striking resemblance to the peaks of the Rocky Mountains. Oldenburg even included the foothills within the composition, by placing the mallets and other parts of the ensemble at a descending distance from the highest cymbal (peak) of the looming formation. Not only does the form of the sculpture resemble that of the beautiful mountains, but the fabric and the material mediums that Oldenburg chose reflect the surface texture of the grand peaks. Oldenburg includes soft white canvas, shiny black vinyl, and silvery metallics within the composition. These materials correspond to the snowy areas of the mountains, the rock and earth encrusted mounds, as well as the slick icy surfaces which often reflect the crisp sunlight at that elevation.


I realized that Oldenburgs study of the drum set, actually the entire exhibit, was an examination and investigation of various forms. Instead of merely accepting normal perception and understanding of objects, Oldenburg challenges the form and forces the viewer to interpret the object in an entirely different sense. I realized that I never had looked at a drum set with such intensity, nor had I questioned the use of a saw as I did until Oldenburg challenged me to do so.


Oldenburgs uninhibited creativity can be traced back to an imaginative childhood. Claes Thure Oldenburg was born in Sweden in the year 1. As a childhood game, Oldenburg created an entire city which he called Neuburg. He contrived extensive maps, newspapers, and magazines to detail this make-believe metropolis. Perhaps this is where Oldenburgs precise drafting habits had their origin. The Oldenburg family moved to the United States and Claes was provided with a successful private, boys school education in Chicago. He then attended Yale, with his main focus on literature. During his final year, he began a formal education in art and art history, which influenced his decision to return to Chicago to attend art school. There, Oldenburgs art education was primarily that of figure studies. Craving to learn more, Oldenburg moved to New York City, to experience and study firsthand Abstract Expressionism and the works of Jackson Pollack. New York City proved to be very influential in shaping the mind of the artist and helping him to discover his personal style. There he experimented with art theater, as well as straying from his figure compositions to more abstract concepts. He began his investigation of form which would prove to be his greatest inspiration. Throughout his education, Oldenburg kept many journals detailing his thoughts, ideas, and self investigations. These notebooks would direct Oldenburgs development as an artist as well as provide subject matter in later years. Oldenburg is a very intellectual individual who puts great emphasis on research and discovery. Oldenburg searches out his subject matter, and provides his audience with a final product that sums up a complex concept in a extremely simple and comprehensive manner. This style is a diversion of the properties of Abstract Expressionism that Oldenburg disliked. Oldenburg strived to create art work that would reach the masses and ordinary individuals would understand and appreciate, rather than limiting comprehension to a select few.


It is difficult to pick a single piece of Oldenburgs work and study it without incorporating his other pieces. Oldenburg takes a standard item and incorporates many different perspectives, ending in the conclusion that all forms can somehow merge into another. Like Oldenburgs tunnel entrance on the side of a mountain in which the entrances are nostrils, Oldenburg can take a form and manipulate it into something different, without straying too far from the original. Oldenburgs artwork is an investigation to find similarities between forms, and he proves this hypothesis with great accuracy and intuition.





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Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Immorality of Gatsby

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The Novel, “The Great Gatsby”, was written by F. Scott Fitzgerald. At the time that he wrote this book, the United States was going through what was known as the Roaring Twenty’s. This was a time of great economic promise. Organized crime, such as the Mob came about. People were always partying everyday of the week, and affairs became very situations. In the “Great Gatsby” many themes were evident. The theme of immorality is best portrayed through the character of Gatsby.


Gatsby best portrayed this theme of immorality because of how he treated himself, his friends, and his life. Throughout the story, as the reader, we are able to see how different Gatsby really is throughout each chapter. At the beginning of the book, we see Gatsby as a hard working, nice single man who lives in a nice house on the West Egg. Near the end of the book we learn that he is still somewhat of a good man, he has a hidden past that not many people know about.


Since Gatsby was a very wealthy man, he never had to worry about being at work. Instead he would through party after party, never giving up on the chance to have a great time. He did not live a normal life. Gatsby never went to church on Sunday, he would always be partying. You can tell he didn’t have a good set of morals because the way he would treat people was just weird. He would let people live in his enormous house for free and let them do what they want. The only exception is that when Gatsby would ask for them to do something for him, they would have to do it. This just seems like something that a normal person wouldn’t do.


Another way that Gatsby portrays the theme of immorality is the way he tries going after Daisy. We now know that many years ago in the story, Gatsby and Daisy had a fling at one time. She dumped him because she thought he did not have enough money. Later, though, he finally meets her again and he begins to show off what his life is like now. He shows his huge house, and expensive clothes to make her amazed and want him back. He tries going for Daisy, even though he know that Tom is married to her. He has such a huge obsession with her that he doesn’t care if she is taken. This is exactly how it was back in the 10’s. It seemed as if everyone was cheating on someone. Maybe it was because they were always drunk and partying all the time. No matter if they are drunk or not, it shows the theme of immorality.


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Emerson

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Emerson. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Emerson paper right on time.

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. Quote Reflection .


“ Trust thyself every heart vibrates to that iron string.” (page 185)





- Ralph Waldo Emerson


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This quote by Ralph Waldo Emerson, to me, is saying that you should trust your own instincts. Meaning that you should do what you feel is right, don’t do something because somebody else is doing it, and do it for yourself. The last part of this quote, “every heart vibrates to that iron string,” tells me that, that when trusting in yourself, everyone will see how confident and courageous you are for sticking up for yourself.


I think that this quote is very encouraging because everybody can benefit from it. I remember when in junior high when there was a new student from China. He didn’t know how to speak English, so of course the older kids started bullying him, and tried taking advantage of him. At first I didn’t want to do anything about it, because I didn’t want people to think that I was a “dork” for sticking up for the new kid. But, one day they took it too far, and I stood up for him, and told them to stop bothering him and stop messing around with his mind. After that day, nobody really talked to him anymore, people stopped bullying him, and as the years passed, he became to know the English language more, and realized what those kids were really doing to him. As he got to know more English, I realized the positive benefits of sticking with your instincts, and how it will help you feel much better about yourself. So in closing, I would like to say, “Trust your instincts! It will get you further in life!”





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Saturday, July 23, 2011

Educating Rita

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... rank likes her straight forwardness in Scene 1 but to his disappointment she starts to loose her identity towards the end of the play.


I think youre the first breath of air thats been in this room for years.


At the summer school Rita has learned about authors and she meets other students. Frank is very impressed of her abilities. She changes her lifestyle with new clothes and a new hair colour and was also influenced of her flatmate Trish.


Trish encourages Rita a lot and she in under her influence.


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As Trish says there is not a lot of point in discussing beautiful literature in an ugly voice.


She is changing herself by becoming more like others, Rita is losing her individuality because of Trish’s opinions.


Me an Trish sat up last night and read them. She agrees with me...what makes it more-more...What did Trish say--?


She forgets her lines and we can tell that she is using other people’s opinions and fa ...


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... dismay, along with it much of her charm.


Act one, scene seven is a crucial scene in Rita’s development. Having been unable to pluck up the confidence or courage to cross over the threshold to Frank’s dinner party, she comes to Frank to justify herself. Rita explains that one of her main concerns was that she might have brought the wrong type of wine. Here again, Russell undercuts the seriousness of his humour. “It wouldn’t have mattered if you’d walked in with a bottle of Spanish plonk,” says Frank. “It was Spanish” comes the reply. The invitation to dinner is partly a symbolic act. To attend the function would signify acceptance in Frank’s social circle, and yet Rita knows that she is not ready for the transition. She fails to do it at this stage because she knows in her heart that she does not possess the language, the knowledge or the style of the middle-class academics to which she aspires. Frank describes Rita’s character as “funny, delightful, and charming” but Rita herself rejects his attempts to compliment her as being patronising. She does not want to be funny but wants to “talk seriously with the rest of you”. Spurred on by this desire, Rita’s metamorphosis gathers momentum.


In Act two, scene two Rita begins speaking with an affected voice, which she sees as talking “properly”. She remarks that Trish has told her “there is not a lot of point in discussing beautiful literature in an ugly voice”. This marks the point at which Rita has lost her uniqueness to the reverence of others and to pressure from examiners expectations. It represents a shift in her attitude and confidence. Rita is now able to hold her own in academic circles. Russell handles this pivotal point with humour, as such dramatic change and emphasised clarity serves as humour to an surprised audience.


The change process is painful for Rita and she likens herself to a “half-caste”(Act one, scene seven) out of place in her own society but not able to fit into that of Frank. We see that Rita is has made it, and is no longer out of place when Frank places her essay on the ...


The relationship between Frank and Rita


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...


Rita Are you married? What’s your wife like? Why did you split up?


He shows interest in her by openly flirting with her


Frank What I’d actually like to do is take you by the hand and run out of this room forever.


Right now there’s a thousand things I’d rather do than teach; most of them with you, young lady…


As they get further into the course and Rita’s relationship with her husband Denny begins to deteriorate, it starts to become clear that whatever non-teacher-pupil feelings Frank may feel for Rita are unrequited. As Rita says herself, for the time being she is only interested in finding out about herself � she doesn’t have time to ‘rush off with some feller’. It is easy to see from the exchange between Frank and Rita on page 4 that while Frank sees Rita as someone he would like to know socially, someone to ...


Analyze the dramatic development of Rita’s character. How has she changed by the end of the play?


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... ndle trying to get into Frank’ study. He has kept it like this for a reason I think, as a sign. This is the security of being closed from the outside world as is the windows shut as being referred to later. This is ironic because Rita is like the one who is if u wants rescuing him, and is fixing his door handle, opening his windows making him become part of society again; Rita makes him sort out his drinking problem. This gives the audience the feeling of how shut off he really feels. He has no confidence and certainly does not inspire it,


‘You see the great thing about the booze is it makes one believe that under all the talk one is actually saying something’.


‘I know absolutely nothing’


‘I am actually an appalling teaching’.


Rita and Frank have a number of similarities; they are both dissatisfied with their lives, although Frank does not seem interested in doing anything about it. They are both witty people and both have things to learn from each other.


Maybe Rita feels she could possibly make Frank take action against his drinking as she has grown up, with people who hide behind bottles of alcohol.


‘You’ve not been drinking have y?’


‘No’


‘Is that’s because of me because of what I said last week?’ this shows the audience her innocent childlike qualities.


Although Frank is unsure of teaching Rita due to his lack of confidence, she feels at ease with him. I think this is because she sees his flaws and this makes her feel comfortable around him. Although he is middle class he is an alcoholic and I am sure Rita has grown up with many if his kind and I would think he would give her a sense of equality as it has been something she has been able to experience.


‘Why come to me?’


‘Because you’re a crazy piss artist who want’s to throw his students out of ...


Educating Rita” � Literature Coursework Essay � 0th Century Drama


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... scene seven. This shows us that their relationship with each other is still holding strong and they still want to be friends, even though one has upset the other. This example demonstrates how close the two characters have become throughout the length of the play.


During the play, we can see Rita demonstrates several of her different moods. Most of the time, she is pleased and enthusiastic about her course at the Open University. We can see this through the actions she makes on the stage. For example “Rita flounces into the room and goes to the desk.” (Act one, scene three) Although we cannot see this action in the play, the audience can see this performed on stage. Another example could be in act one, scene six, “Rita bursts through the door out of breath.”


Once during the play, Rita’s name changes. At the beginning, her name was based on the author of the novel Rubyfruit Jungle (Rita Mae Brown), and then later on in the play she changes her name back to her original name (Susan White). The reason she did this is because she was “in awe” of the book Rubyfruit Jungle and she shows this through changing her name to that of the author’s. The following extract can be found in act one, scene one. Rita “That’s ‘S’ for Susan. It’s just me real name. I’ve changed it to Rita, though. I’m not Susan anymore. I’ve called meself Rita ...


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... er/student relationship when he says


“How about a proper lunch”


Rita answers that she has to go to fix her customer and invites Frank to go to the gallery with her, which he accepts gratefully (with a smile)


The next step in their relationship is Rita leaving her husband, moving in with the sophisticated Trish and going to s ...


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Examine Franks growing sense of unease as Rita becomes more educated


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... nce. He was really happy that he was going to teach her all about Blake, now he couldn’t because another lecturer already had. Frank’s student is not clinging to him anymore; she is gaining in self-confidence and moving up in the world, away from Frank. Also in that scene, Rita mentions her new flatmate, Trish. When Frank asks Rita if Trish is a good influence Rita praises Trish saying that she is great and she is dead classy. This shows to the audience that Rita looks up to Trish and that she would like to be like her. This shows that Rita looks up to Rita more than she looks up to Frank.


When Rita enters in Act Scene she starts talking in a peculiar voice, Franks asks her why she is doing it and she replies that she had “ merely decided to talk properly” Frank doesn’t like the way that Rita is trying to talk and says it is quite ugly. Frank says to her “Rita! Just be yourself”, but this is what Rita doesnt want to do, she wants to change, she wants to be a different person, to be more educated. When she decides to talk normally again Frank asks why she has grass on her back and Rita tells Frank that she got to lesson early and started talking to some students on the lawn, Frank seems surprised about this, even though he denies it. When Rita tells Frank that while she ...


How does the environment effect education in the educating Rita?


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... s’ and has found himself drunk in a few lectures. He has a girlfriend called Julia, she admires him and he likes her a lot. Frank used to be a poet. He was married before this relationship but him and his wife split up because of poetry. Frank and Rita’s first meeting


Frank and Rita first met in frank’s office because Rita was taking an interview for an Open University course. Frank was asleep ...


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Table of Contents


The following table of contents allows you to infer the structure of the document and the content contained therein


Introduction to the play


Introduction to Rita


Introduction to Frank


Frank and Rita’s first meeting


Rita’s Culture/Background


Frank’s culture/Background


After What you Gave me I Had a choice And I Chose Me - Educating Rita


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... o this is “I’m on this course, you are my teacher an’ you’re gonna bleedin’ well teach me!”. There is a special quality which both of them posses, their opposing personalities. You can tell this just by listening to them.


This quality ensures they compliment each other incredibly well. Furthermore, it is also a dramatic device thought of by the author which also brings out the best in each of them. Frank quits drinking and even manages to stop smoking! In the same way we see the side of Rita which is incredibly curious, and the side of her which is hungry, at the point of starvation, to learn.


On the other hand, opposites can clash and Frank and Rita do. For example…


?®Educating Rita?¯


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... ts a conversation about Rita’s job in a hairdressing salon.


Throughout the play, Russell uses widely differing methods to question Frank’s, Rita’s and the reader’s attitudes to education. Rita sees education as an escape from lower-class life and a way to broaden her horizons. Frank however, sees it as a necessary thing, which perhaps makes you look at life in a dull way, examining everything, that might be better if just left as it is.


Frank knows that if Rita is to succeed as a literary scholar and improve class, he will have to crush her natural exuberance and ...


Educating Rita


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... , she just calls him “Y’ soft get”. And says, “there’s no point cryin’ over spilt milk”. But she is determined to live the life that she wants to.


In the end, she leaves Denny because he gave her an ultimatum to stop the studying or leave, Rita chose her education.


Rita worked as a hairdresser, but she got bored with all the conversation “It does my head in”. “The conversation is dead boring”. She also quite her work because there are no progression.


When she was cutting peoples hair, she knew there was more to life and that she wanted to learn.


After beginning to study, one day she talked to a customer about ‘Peer Gynt’ and found that she enjoyed that type of conversation. So she left and went to work in a bistro where she believed she could have this type of conversation all the time.


She then enjoyed talking about ‘important things’ with her customers unlike working in a hairdresser and talking “irrelevant rubbish& ...


Educating Rita


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... Rita feels very incomplete from the start of the play. When her husband wants Rita to have a baby, she refuses, as she believes that having a baby will invade her life and she feels the need to discover her self before she has a baby. Her attitude drives her husband away.


Rita now begins to make progress. After coming back from summer school, she is overjoyed at her experience. She feels the need to give her self a personality and her look makeover because in her eyes, the students have a different way of dressing and style. She believes that she has become a brand new person because of her confidence gain and all the knowledge she has gained. She wears more stylish clothes because she feels more accepted, she does not speak slang and her accent is not the same, she has a better job as a waitress (in the B Stroke), she can mix in with the students, has friends who are high-class and reads more books while going to theatres. Because Rita in ...


Educating Rita


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... n with it; one of these days you’ll be shouting’ ‘come in and’ it’ll go on forever because the poor sod on the other side wont be able to get in. an’ you wont be able to get in. an’ you wont be able to get out”. So as you can see Rita takes detail to far.


Willy Russell keeps our interest be adding new and exciting characters to the play he adds three other charters Trish Rita’s flat mate. Trish tries to kill her self because of depression. Denny is Rita’s husband. Denny’s role in the play is a cruel role with wanting Rita to have a baby very early on in life he tries to stop her going ...


Educating Rita by Willy Russell


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... be funny, I wanna talk seriously with the rest of you, I don’t wanna spend the night taking the piss, comin’ on with the funnies because that’s the only way I can get into the conversation. I don’t want to come to your house just to play the court jester.”


She thinks that she is a “half-caste” stuck between working and middle class, not quite fitting into either.


For Rita Act One ends on a very negative note, her marriage is finished. This came about because Rita’s husband Denny wanted a baby and Rita did not, also Denny wanted Rita to stop going to the O.U course. Denny gives an ultimatum do as he says or leave.


Frank and Rita both know that Rita will have to change to be able to write essays that will pass an examination. This will affect the relationship because Frank doesn’t want to change Rita but Rita wants Frank to help change her, so it is inevitable that there would be a clash of wills.


When Rita comes back from the O.U summer school she is more mature. Frank however is surprised that Rita has changed this much.


Rita ...


Educating Rita- How Does Russell Make The Opening Dramatic and Entertaining?


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... xed!.


This is very dramatic as we are made to wait for Ritas entrance and she doesnt walk meekly into the room as we would expect a student, having her first meeting with a teacher, to do. She takes a commanding role and is telling Frank what to do. Frank is shocked and surprised and the audience is amused at this apparent role reversal with the student dominating the teacher. He immediately tries to regain his posit ...


Explain how class has eased problems for both Frank and Rita


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... tly and take her more seriously. Or maybe she feels that Susan is a working class name and Rita is an upper-middle class name. So she wants to sound more educated then she really is.


Frank however was born into the upper-middle class and I believe he is quite happy there. He has a drinking problem but because of his class it is quite acceptable to drink early in the morning and continue through out the day until he goes to bed. He used to smoke but has promised to give it up, that is until Rita insisted on him smoking with her. I’m beginning to think that social drinking is okay but not smoking. Maybe they are more aware off the health risks associated with smoking and feel that the drinking risks are more acceptable.


The main jobs that, that particular class tends to do is, university lecturer, doctor, lawyer, all the well paid ...


Frank says to Rita “...To pass exams, you’re going to have to suppress perhaps even abandon your uniqueness. I’m going to have to change you.” How does Rita change during the course of the play?


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... , but she said “No.” He says that they could talk about her and Denny, and Rita says, “ I’ve got to do this. He can burn me books an’ me papers but if its all in me head he cant touch it.” In a way Denny has moved her on. She realises that she would be stuck with him, but he has made her want to learn more. Even though she feels she wants to learn more since the burning event, she still pries into Frank’s business, and asks him why he stopped being a poet, so again she is trying to find more information on him, as she finds him so interesting. Rita went to see the play of Macbeth, and she thought it was fantastic. She thought she was going to find it really boring, but she surprised herself, and absolutely loved it. She liked it so much that she even memorised a piece of the play, which she recited to Frank. A reason for her liking the play so much could be that she understood it, and as she did, she may have related to it.


When Rita refers to herself as a “Half caste” she means that she is no longer working class, but she is not middle class either. Half way through the play she feels as though she is being pulled in different directions. She wants to break out of her lower class, and she wants to break out of her hollowness. When her mother says how they could do so much better, and about how they could “ Sing a different song.” This really changes Ritas view on things, and encourages her. When Rita has her problems, she tries to overcome them by getting on with her learning. It really hits home to ...


What Do Frank and Rita Learn from Each Other? How Does This ‘Education’ Change Them As People


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... thought it was crap! F Crap? And who are you citing in support of your thesis, F. R. Leavis? R No. Me! F What have I just said? ‘Me’ is subjective.’ (1.ii)


Along the way Frank and Rita learn a lot more from each other. The next point Frank learns is that education can ‘quash’ a person. He realises or thinks that if Rita is successful in ‘learning everything’ (which is what she wanted in the beginning) then it will spoil what is so special about Rita. For instance the way she just comes out with things, says what is exactly on her mind, she will start to say less about what she thinks, try and make it into a ‘more posh’ point of view. Frank may even be scared that Rita will become a ‘literary snob’ like he was in the beginning. ‘F (appealingly) Rita, stop it! R But Frank, I have to persevere in order that I shall. F Rita! Just be yourself. R I am being myself.’ (.ii)


Rita is also learning along with Frank. But she learns that to cope with having an education and being exposed to all these literate, upp ...


What is your opinion of Rita in Educating Rita?


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... s not angry at Denny, she just calls him “Y’ soft get”. And says, “there’s no point cryin’ over spilt milk”. But she is determined to live the life that she wants to.


In the end, she leaves Denny because he gave her an ultimatum to stop the studying or leave, Rita chose her education.


Rita worked as a hairdresser, but she got bored with all the conversation “It does my head in”. “The conversation is dead boring”. She also quite her work because there are no progression.


When she was cutting peoples hair, she knew there was more to life and that she wanted to learn.


After beginning to study, one day she talked to a customer about ‘Peer Gynt’ and found that she enjoyed that type of conversation. So she left and went to work in a bistro where she believed she could have this type of conversation all the time.


She then enjoyed talking about ‘important things’ with her customers unlike working in a hairdresser and talking “irre ...


When Rita was at school, she did not have much of an education, nobody wanted to learn.


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... her books Rita is not angry at Denny, she just calls him “Y’ soft get”. And says, “there’s no point cryin’ over spilt milk”. But she is determined to live the life that she wants to.


In the end, she leaves Denny because he gave her an ultimatum to stop the studying or leave, Rita chose her education.


Rita worked as a hairdresser, but she got bored with all the conversation “It does my head in”. “The conversation is dead boring”. She also quite her work because there are no progression.


When she was cutting peoples hair, she knew there was more to life and that she wanted to learn.


After beginning to study, one day she talked to a customer about ‘Peer Gynt’ and found that she enjoyed that type of conversation. So she left and went to work in a bistro where she believed she could have this type of conversation all the time.


She then enjoyed talking about ‘important things’ with her customers unlike working in a hairdresser and talking “i ...





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Thursday, July 21, 2011

Pop Art: A new art movement

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POP ART


A NEW ART MOVEMENT


Pop Art is an art movement that appeared in the fifties as a reaction against “Abstract Expressionism”(considered as an accepted style). It referred to some artists’ interest in the images of mass media, advertising, comics, and consumer products. Pop Art brought art back to materiality and popular culture as it eliminated the difference between good and bad taste, and fine art and commercial art techniques (Pop Art 07/1/00). Lawrence Alloway first used the term Pop Art (as popular art) in a 158 issue of “Architectural Digest” to describe the paintings that celebrate post-war consumerism, defy the psychology of “Abstract Expressionism”, and worship the god of materialism (Pop Art 1/1/00). Pop Art started in the fifties in Britain (it became a piece of the image of “swinging London”) and reached its top in the U.S. (New York in particular) in the sixties. Two leading Pop artists are David Hockney and Andy Warhol.


“British Pop Art arose of a new understanding of contemporary life. It was intellectual, interdisciplinary, and programmatic in character”. During the early fifties, British artists and intellectuals started to conceive that their culture was more and more fixed by social change, new technology, and mass media, and that this movement was inducing the enhanced “Americanization” of Europe (Steven Henry


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Madoff). This cultural alteration was not manifested in the self-contained, expressive, abstract-figurative art of the older generation of British artists Henry Moore or Graham Sutherland for example.


Actually, the Independent Group was assembled in 15 in order to have casual conversations and cultural events at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London. The subjects brought to issue at their reunions can be listed as follows the amplification of artistic techniques beyond traditional forms of representation, action painting, helicopter and car-body design, nuclear biology, mass media and municipal culture, folk culture, the cinema, pop music, and the theories of Marshall McLuhan. These topics were very distant from the concerns of the cultural establishment of that time.


The Pop Art movement expanded fast in Britain, among the younger generation and in geographical terms, and it is because of young painters’ influence that British Pop Art reacted with much potency to American Pop Art. This period of British Pop Art prospered and made its first public presence at the exhibition “Young Contemporaries” in 160 the first exhibition to provide a general survey of the new art movement (Pop Art in Britain). British Pop Art eliminated the traditional limits of artistic development to walk on the trail of self-analysis within a consciously perceived and reflected present-day existence.


On another hand, when American Art stood up with its newly found self-confidence against European influence in the fifties, American Pop Art was born. Actually Americanism itself catered the initial push the idea of progress, the media


industry and the star-cult were experiencing a boom in Hollywood and, more especially, in New York, the cultural center of the U.S.A..


American Pop Art developed through different phases. The first was the pre-pop phase, in which painters abandoned “Abstract Expressionism”. The second was the heyday of Pop Art, in which a large number of important artists, whose work was partly based on commercial art, design and poster painting, emerged. With the sponsorship of certain committed and experimental New York galleries, this phase of Pop Art quickly achieved success and recognition as a new art movement. During the third phase (the middle of the sixties), American Pop Art was widely known it expanded from New York to the West Coast and Canada, and later to Europe and Britain which had its own Pop Art for some time. The last phase featured a harsh, radical realism, largely of American origin, whose subject was urban social relations.


The earliest advocates of American Pop Art outside New York were from California. Los Angeles was the center of West Coast Pop, a city whose sub-culture not only had an enduring influence on this variant of Pop Art, but which was later to conquer the world in the form of the hippie culture and lifestyle (Pop Art in America).


One of the leading Pop artists is David Hockney (17- ). British painter, draughtsman, printmaker, photographer, and designer. As a student, Hockney lead an astonishing prize-winning path at the Royal College of Art, then realized international success during his mid twenties. Since then, he stabilized himself as by far the most famous British artist of his generation. His exceptional achievement has not been built only on the flair, wit, and versatility of his work, but on his colorful personality too,


which has lead him to become a known figure even to people who are not really attached to art (Hockney, David).


Although he never accepted the label of leading pop artist, Hockney gained this reputation because of his early paintings that are jockey in mood. During the late sixties he moved to a weightier, more traditionally representational manner in which he painted some splendid portraits (Hockney spent a lot of time in the U.S.A. and the Californian swimming pool has been one of his favorite subjects). In the seventies he achieved his peak as a stage designer and moved during the eighties to photography. Hockney is a perceptive commentator on art he published a book on his own work in 176, “David Hockney by David Hockney” (David Hockney).


Another leading pop artist is Andy Warhol (10-187). Born in Pittsburgh, Warhol got his high school diploma in 145 (he studied pictorial design and art history, sociology and psychology). In 14, he met Philip Pearlstein and moved to New York with him, where he worked for “Vogue” and “Harper’s Bazaar”. In 15, he had his first one-man exhibition at the Hugo Gallery, New York, and he moved after that into a house in Lexington Avenue with his mother (and several cats!). In 156, Warhol had an individual exhibition of his drawings for “Boy Book” at the Bodley Gallery, and he traveled in Europe and Asia. In 16, he produced his silkscreen prints on canvas of dollar notes, Campbell’s Soup cans, Marilyn Monroe…


Between 16 and 164 Warhol produced over two thousand pictures in his “Factory” as well as he made two movies “Sleep” and “Empire” in 16. He also produced the first record of the rock band the Velvet Underground in 167 and he made several films with them.


In July 168 Valerie Solanis, the only member of S.C.U.M. (the Society for Cutting Up Men), shot down Warhol (he was dangerously wounded). In 175 Warhol


published the first edition of his book “The Philosophy of Andy Warhol”(from A to B and Back Again). In 180 he became manager of the cable television station “Andy Warhol’s T.V.”. In 181 the exhibition Andy Warhol-Paintings 161-168 was held at the Kestner-Gesselschaft, Hanover, and at the Stadtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich. He made pictures of disasters between 18 and 185, and portraits of Lenin and self-portraits in 186. His will provided for an endowment fund for the patronage of art (Andy Warhol).


Pop Art made art accessible for everyone, and opened new dimensions in art it reflects the twentieth century man’s vision of himself, getting more and more into the materiality of things.


-“Andy Warhol”. 1/1/00.


www.fi.muni.cz/~toms/PopArt/Biographies/warhol.html.


-“David Hockney”. 07/1/00.


www.fi.muni.cz/~toms/PopArt/Biographies/hockney.html.


-“Hockney, David”. 07/1/00.


www.iblio.org/wm/paint/auth/hockney/.


-Madoff, Steven Henry Ed. .


Pop Art A Critical History.


Berkeley, California University of California Press, 17.


-“Pop Art in America”. 07/1/00.


www.fi.muni.cz/~toms/PopArt/Overview/america.html.


-“Pop Art in Britain”. 07/1/00.


www.fi.muni.cz/~toms/PopArt/Overview/britain.html.


-“Pop Art”. 07/1/00.


www.iblio.org/wm/paint/tl/0th/pop-art.html.


-“Pop Art”. 1/1/00.


www.encyclopedia.com/articles/10405.html.


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Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Pie

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When he arrived in Buenos Aires, Travis saw his dad in the crowd of people waiting for others to arrive. His dad was taller than most, didn’t have a lot of hair, and what he did have was mostly gray or white. He had lost some weight and looked pretty muscular. I’ll still kick his ass in basketball Travis thought! Dad saw everyone arrive and waved his arms like a windmill. Like we don’t see him Travis said out loud, and the other Harskis laughed.


Travis immediately liked Buenos Aires. When he got to his new home that first day, his dad had arranged for a couple of other 7th graders to come over and say hello to him. The next thing you knew a few phone calls were made by his new friends and suddenly there were ten 7th graders in the back yard playing 5 on 5 soccer. And Travis was far and away the best player out there. It was shortly after that game finished that the problem started; they all wanted Travis to be on their team. It wasn’t because Travis was a selfish player and scored a lot of goals. It was because Travis was a team player, and still scored a lot of goals. He was fun to play with and everyone who was on his team knew that if they were open, Travis would get them the ball. And if they didn’t score on their shot on goal, then Travis would probably be right there to follow it in.


Just when the game finished, dad walked out carrying a bunch of lemonade and cut up apples and pears. Dad saw the boys giving Travis high-fives and instantly knew that Travis had some new, good friends. Travis said thanks for the goodies and asked if they could go swimming. Dad pointed to the little pool room at the end of the back yard and said there are plenty of towels in there. Have fun!


Travis was having so much fun with his new friends that he forgot all about what day it was. Travis couldn’t remember if he had to go to school the next day or not, or if it was even the weekend. Travis asked dad what tomorrow was. Dad replied, it’s the day you get to sleep in as late as you want. I have the next three days off and you guys don’t start school for another two weeks. Alright Travis thought. The only thing that could make this any better would be if the Cartoon network was on. Just as Travis was thinking that, dad yelled out - Travis - if you turn on the TV in your bedroom, the Cartoon network is on channel 15. You’ve got about an hour and dinner will be ready. Travis said goodbye to his friends and walked into his own bedroom for the first time. It was huge, and there next to the window was his very own TV. He clicked on the remote control and turned to channel 15. He sprawled out on the bed and fell instantly asleep.


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Dad tried to wake him for his wonderful barbeque steak that he had specially prepared for Travis, but Travis was completely zonked out. The fatigue from all of the travel, the flight, and all the excitement of changing from Ramona to Buenos Aires finally got to Travis, and once he put his head on the pillow, he was in a different world. Dad snuck in a little kiss on his forehead and whispered it’s nice to have you back buddy.


When Travis woke up, he was really confused. First one day in California, and then the next day in Argentina. Looking around, it was morning time and Travis could hear dad saying something about pancakes and bacon. Just lying there, Travis thought this was just like old times. A sort of peaceful glow set about Travis and he smiled to himself, thinking Buenos Aires is gonna be a great place.


After a great breakfast of pancakes, honeydew melon, bacon and orange juice, Travis asked dad what the plans were for the day. Well, mom’s got a whole list of chores for you guys to do dad said. Just kidding! Today we’re gonna play basketball at the school at about 5 with the adults. There’s gonna be some other boys there that you could play with as well. But before that, I hear they’re having a free rock climbing session at the school. What the heck was that Travis wondered? Dad said it was this after school activity the school has where you are tethered to a line for safety and you climb this 50 foot rock wall. It’s pretty difficult at the top part so you have to be pretty strong. Dad said no one has ever made it to the top the first time trying to climb it. Dad stopped talking for a second, and looked at Travis. Already Travis knew, and now dad knew, that Travis was going to be the first one to ever climb the rock course on the first time trying.





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Monday, July 18, 2011

Ambition

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Ambition. The Webster’s Dictionary defines it as an eager or strong desire to achieve something such as fame or power. In other words, it is a goal that one wants to accomplish. It takes ambition to live a life with meaning. Ambitions can come in different sizes, and different levels of importance and different levels of difficulty. However, ambitions share a similar property they require work to achieve. The question is how much will one do before one he or she gives up.


Ambitions change throughout your life. I remember when I was 6 years old; it was to become an astronaut. My environment and interests shaped my ambition. I was really into things like planets and outer space. Being young, I didn’t realize the magnitude of the work it took to become one, and the risks that follow the career. As time passed by, I acquired more knowledge on the career of the astronaut. Fear of death in space by lack of oxygen and extreme physical requirements eventually destroyed my ambition, and caused me to search for a new goal. One reason why the dream to become an astronaut was so easily broken was because I didn’t have a strong enough desire to become one. Why would there be so little astronauts if it was so easy to become one? It isn’t. It is very difficult and some people are just not born to become one.


It takes much perseverance to accomplish a goal. I believe that perseverance decays when the ambition drags on for too long when the desire to accomplish it is weak. A catalyst that speeds up this process of giving up is fear of something. It can be the fear of consequences or the fear of death. My uncle’s best friend discovered that he had a terminal disease. The doctors said it would take a lot of perseverance, confidence and time to have a chance of recovering. At first, he was very confident in himself and believed that he can do it. He went to every appointment and did everything the doctor told him to. As time went by, his will started to diminish. He would still go to the appointments, however, he didn’t listen to the doctor’s recommendations of what to avoid eating. After a while, he started to accept his fate and not combat his fear of death. Today, he is lying in an emergency room, and accepting death.


I haven’t experienced anything comparable to my uncle’s friend but as I stated earlier, ambitions come in different sizes. One that comes to my mind immediately is my ambition to become a famous beta tester of a computer game I play. To do so, I must increase my character’s ability and level and search for rare items. To achieve this, I must take things step by step and search for each item. The searching required is random. It all depends on luck. I find myself hard to keep my goals that lead to the achievement of my ambition because I’m unlucky.


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My ambition in life now is to go to school and eventually become an orthodontist. This career not only interests me, but I believe that this life ambition is attainable. To do so, I’m willing to spend much more of my life in university. I will do things that I never thought I would do in my life, such as examining the mouth of a real corpse. With this ambition, I can live my life naturally and meaningfully because everything I do now is ultimately going to lead to the accomplishment of my ambition.





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Sunday, July 17, 2011

Were Stalin’s methods the only ones appropriate to the task of transforming the Soviet Union into an industrial nation?

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I believe that Stalin’s methods at the time were the only ones appropriate to the task of transforming the Soviet Union into an industrial nation. In this essay I will cover the following points to back up my argument Russia’s industrial state at the end of Lenin’s era in 14, Stalin’s rise and consolidation of power, Stalin’s methods and policies on industrialization, collectivisation and form of a totalitarian state, victory against the Nazi’s and becoming the world superpower.


At the end of 14 Russia was in a very awkward position, due to being the only country that was ruled by a communist government. Lenin intended to transform the Russian economy by wiping out all exploitation of man by man. Here was the problem that faced the new leader of the regime. In 11 as a result of the chaos caused by the Decree on land and War Communism policies Lenin introduced a new policy. The basic strategy was now to restore the economy a degree of capitalism and private enterprise. Introducing his New Economic Policy (NEP), Lenin argued that the road to socialism would be longer then originally thought. In the NEP Lenin left an intermediate strategy which contained a long-term problem. Should the mixed economy be retained indefinitely, as Bhukarin argued, or should socialism be accelerated � a course urged by Trotsky. So any leader that was taking over power from Lenin would be faced with a problem. As we come to find out Stalin handled this superbly in the end and in my view he was the only man that could have taken the country forward.


Stalin was probably an outsider to take over the Bolshevik party after Lenin’s death in Jan 14. He was totally eclipsed by Trotsky in the October revolution and never succeeded in winning the confidence and the friendship of Lenin. He was widely regarded as a plodder. However beneath Stalin’s grey exterior, was a singularly ruthless and opportunist character. While posing as a moderate he waited for the opportunity to attack other candidates, like a crocodile patiently waiting for its prey to make a mistake, then pounce. The fact that unlike other candidates Stalin was not Western educated, put him above Trotsky in people’s estimations. “He was a very skilful politician who had a superb grasp for tactics, could predict behaviour extremely well and had an unerring eye for personal weaknesses” quoted by a well-known historian McCauley. In particular he was able to capitalise on Bhukarin’s inability to convert his plausible economic theory into a credible programme, on Kamenev’s lack of vision and on Zinoviev’s organisational weakness. Stalin, by contrast showed consistent skill in grouping around him, his own sets of allies � men like Kalinin, Kuibyshev, Molotov and Voroshilov. It is clear that like other Bolshevik leaders, Stalin’s ultimate aim was collectivisation of the land and industrialisation. He was prepared to do anything to achieve everything. Of course we cannot tell how Lenin, had he lived, or how Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev or Bhukarin, would have ruled the USSR if they had won the struggle for power. However it is very unlikely, from what we know about them, that any of theses leaders could have equalled Stalin’s success.


Before Stalin came to power after Lenin’s death in 14 he had held numerous positions within the party. The combinations of these posts allowed Stalin to monitor grassroots party appointments all over Soviet Russia, and thus build up an army of henchmen. This in turn, meant that he was soon able to control the election of deputies to the Supreme Soviet, the top legislative body, and to the Party Congress. This enabled him to have his ‘own’ people in place, so everything was channelled through him. This means he would have total control. This method Stalin used to establish a totalitarian dictatorship, which allowed him greater control and I doubt that had it been any other leader, would they have made such a drastic difference all the way through the chain. Stalin was very skilful in manoeuvring his people to positions where he wanted them, then changing sides if he saw a better option, therefore leaving them hi and dry. Stalin consolidated his position with his well-timed formulation of the theory of “Socialism in one country”, for which idea he had earlier condemned Trotsky. This doctrine, calling for construction of socialist society in the Soviet Union regardless of international situation, distanced Stalin from the left and won support with Bhukarin and the party’s right wing. With this support Stalin ousted the leaders of the “Left Opposition” from their position in 16/7 and forced Trotsky into exile in 18. As the NEP era ended, opened debate within the party became increasingly limited as Stalin gradually eliminated all his opponents. The murder of Kirov in Dec of 14 for allegedly plotting to replace Stalin began a period of purging and terror that lasted until 1. It was marked by execution of virtually the entire political and military elite and the incarceration in forced labour camps of millions of Soviet citizens. Using this method with the help of the Secret Police, Stalin established his personal dictatorship over the party and the country. To summarise Stalin was a ruthless man of caution, cunning and calculation. He was cruel and heartless, murdering anyone who appeared to stand in his way or might prove a later threat, but his plans were pursued with such vigour and forcefulness, fuelled by fear. Stalin believed that terror was a legitimate political weapon. The difference was while Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders opposed the use of terror against their own colleagues, Stalin had no such reservations. Stalin believed that terror was the most effective way of making people obey and work hard. I believe had Stalin not pulled Russia together by force to become an industrial nation, they would have been far worse off in the Nazi regime, as I have no doubt had Russia not industrialised, she would have been defeated in 141/4. So Stalin’s methods had not only saved millions of lives from war and but also saved Russia as a county, its people and the heritage. It is fair to say that it came at a cost of several million lives, but I believe no one could have got the same result with fewer casualties.


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Although Stalin’s objectives were very clear, they were very reactionary to the mood of the times. Stalin was very careful to back the most popular solutions to the many problems hotly debated in the 10’s. Many people preferred this, as they longed for some stability after the years of upheaval. He always appeared as one who implemented the will of the majority. This was another method of Stalin to maintain power and achieve his goal of industrialisation and developing a totalitarian communist state, and again I doubt weather any other leader would have been clever and strong enough to use these methods. He was playing his colleagues, the ordinary people and changing his policies in order to achieve what was necessary. After a year of adrift since taking over and unmindful of the party’s desire for change, Stalin and his men at the end of 18 struck out on a set of policies designed to turn backward Russia into a modern state. With his ruthless and vigorous action he launched forced industrialisation and collectivisation. The momentous series of economic and social measures included the establishment of a series of five-year national economic plans, the deportation and execution of hundreds of thousands of better off peasants (kulaks) and the forced entrance of the rest into state-controlled collective farms, nationalising of all industry and commerce, the regulation and manipulation of all financial instruments for capital accumulation by the government regardless of the people’s impoverishment, and the centralization of all social activity. During the first two Five Year Plans (FYP’s) of 1- huge hydroelectric dams were built as well as canals, mines and factories. They were built in record time, using free and prison labour. Managers, who were party members, drove the workers relentlessly because they risked prison and deportation, or even death for “sabotage” if production targets were not met. Russia and its people had never experience these methods’s before as no one had introduced them, but to Stalin’s credit the results they produced were phenomenal. During the first FYP 1500 big enterprises had been constructed. These included the Dnepregres, the Magnitogorsk and Kuznetsk metallurgical complexes, the Ural machine factory, the Rostov agricultural-machinery plant, which is still operating today, tractor factories at Chelyabinsk, Stalingrad, the Kharkov, car factories in Moscow and Sormovo, the Ural chemical works and so on. In 1, 8 million roubles worth of machine tools were imported, which represented 78% of all machine tools installed that year. However none of this would have been achieved had the idea of “patriotism” had not been introduced. People were continuously brainwashed by the government. By 17, all the basic tools of industrialization and of arms production were made in the Soviet Union. The economic growth between 15-6 was considerable. In 14 gross industrial output rose by 1%, in 15 by % and in 16 by %. Stalin officially justified forced collectivisation and industrialization by claiming that Russia was “threatened” by the Western powers, i.e. Britain and France, so it had to “catch up” with them in industrial production. During the early 10’s Russia was starting to get recognised on the international scene on its economic strength and means of production. She formed economic relationship with Germany. In 14 she entered the League of Nations. This is a great reflection for what Stalin and his ruthless methods did for Russia. His methods to industrialize at any cost were completely appropriate, as at the time it was the only option as it takes much more then words and a change of regime to change people’s mentality and work ethic. The establishment of totalitarian political control was completed with retrenchment in the social and economic realm in which Stalin instituted better methods of industrial management, a system of incentives and different wages and prices, the reestablishment of traditional procedures in the armed forces, more moderate general guidelines in the arts and the sciences, and a revival of the family as the basic social unit and the elimination of religion as a national cult allowing Stalin greater control. Hundreds of new cities and settlements were founded. By October of 15 all the rationing of foods was abolished as both industry and agriculture was ripe. In marked contrast at the time to the capitalist West, unemployment was abolished. In fact the economic advance gave rise to shortage of labour, which was overcome by millions of peasants entering Russian industry. Whilst the rest of the world was paralysed by the worst slump in history, the USSR under Stalin was taking giant steps forward. It can be said that Stalin dragged Russia up on its own feet. It was now self-efficient, as she could now rely on its own production both for agricultural and industrial materials.


Russia’s victory over Germany in 145 I believe was a direct consequence of Stalin’ rule and methods he used to get things done. In view of the initial collapse in 141/4 due to Stalin making the wrong decision and focussing purely on offensive war strategy, the extent of Soviet military recovery was nothing short of remarkable. Credit must be given to Stalin’s own recovery and ability to co-ordinate military revival and make full use of the climate and size of Russia. Despite some losses of territory, Soviet Union still managed to out produce Germany in war material, the direct result of the FYP’s of the 10’s. Stalin matched his peak of his administrative efficiency during the war years and was able to make structural changes, which enabled Soviet Union to make a more effective use of production, mobilisation of Russian resources. This was achieved by Stalin breaking up the old components of Stalinism, the totalitarian control over the political government. He decided to dismantle them, and therefore giving greater power further down the line. This partial demobilisation of the command economy delivered overwhelming numbers of tanks, aircraft, and artillery pieces to any front of war they were required. This method was again something new, and empathizes the skill Stalin had to react to circumstances and come out on top. His more appropriate method and style of leadership and more effective use of economic resources undoubtedly led to military victory. So the man totally responsible was Stalin. Stalin was the only dictator to come out victorious in 145. Hitler committed suicide in the face of defeat. Franco and Salazar, kept their countries out of conflict. After 145 until his death in 15 Stalin launched a campaign of reconstruction and finally achieved his original objective of making the Soviet Union a superpower. He also extended Russian control, for the first time over most Eastern Europe and established a series of satellite states. The methods Stalin used to gain totalitarian measures were the fulfilment of Stalinism during his reign. The man behind the system grew in power and used this power to intensify the totalitarian nature of the regime. There was even forebodings in the West that this type of dictatorship might provide a general pattern for the future. This is in my view a very strong argument that Stalin’s methods were the only ones appropriate at the time. Stalin’s search for power was total and the methods he used were more extreme then had previously been used. Stalin was ruthless in his pursuit of power and efficient in his use of it, with the first point leading directly to the second. Ruthlessness and power combined to create a form of totalitarianism, which was more complete than that of Nazi Germany. Stalin created an industrial infrastructure, he cut down possible opposition by directly instigating purges, he changed the people’s cultural and social perception and he pursued a foreign policy, which, with the occasional changes in tactics, had an overall strategy of making Russia a world superpower. Because of these methods and developments and despite the suffering inflicted, the Soviet Union was able to inflict defeat on Nazi Germany. I doubt that had any other leader been in charge would had done so, and had USSR become a superpower. In the last analysis Stalin could claim that his methods “Soviet Russia had become stronger as a result of his grandiose campaigns of industrialisation, collectivisation and social transformation.” The very nature of the Russian national character allowed this to happen. Russian’s never knew democracy as they were always repressed and ruled by barons and tsars. They never knew freedom or democracy, as most people being surfs the majority didn’t know how to handle freedom, so they became puppets at the hands of a dictator. Lenin’s attempt at free enterprise wasn’t good enough for Stalin because it contradicted his nature, of a highly suspicious and ruthless dictator. Stalin eliminated all sense of the traditional religion, but people had to have someone to believe in and Stalin took over the role of God in many people’s eyes. Stalin was the one who started the cult of worshipping the leader. The name Stalin means, “steel” and he certainly lived up to his name.





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