Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Individual Development Plan

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Hambright 1


Melody Hambright


Professor Charles Sofios


Organizational Management 50


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0 October 00


Individual Development Plan


On the scale from 1 to 5, my basic personality trait is


between quiet and talkative (), tolerant (), organized


(5), calm (5), between imaginative and conventional (),


outgoing (4), cooperative (5), dependable (5), secure (5),


familiar (5), between sociable and loner (), trusting


(4), goal-oriented (4), enthusiastic (1), and change (1).


As a leader, I plan to develop my leadership traits by


first taking self-examination of myself and determine my


strengths and weaknesses of being a leader. The


assessment will allow me to make a list of possible


opportunities and threats in order to set short and long


term goals that will help me in the process. As I look at


the above list, even though some I rated as 1, , , 4, or


5, there are all areas in leadership I consider targets


that need to be maximize. It is often said “the largest


room in the world is the room for improvement.” I plan to


continue to improvement my leadership skills by being a


good listener and communicating effective with individuals.


I am planning on being a good problem solver and


knowledgeable in the job or position I am performing in


order to better serve my followers. Also, I recognize that


good leaders were once good followers. As a future


leader, I am planning on to have a mentor, some who is in


leadership who I can emulate and learn how to be effective


in this prestigious position. Networking with other


successful leaders is other avenues I


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plan to utilize that can aide me in my personal leadership


development. Networking would allow me the opportunity to


meet other successful individuals and can provide me with


an opportunity to expand my boundaries. As a leader, I am


planning on being a participative leader, a leader who


shares his or her decisions with members of his or her


group. This will allow the group to be apart of the


decision making process and to give their feedback


whenever needed. The following pages consist of a


leadership illustration page that is broken into several


leadership traits and where I stand in terms of experience


in each area. Also, the chart lists areas that I need to


improve and areas I am well acquainted with the basis


personality traits.


An analysis of the five factor model personality


trait, has an impressive body of research supporting that


five basic personality dimensions underlie human


behavior. These five dimensions are defined as follows


• Extraversion is a sociable person that likes to


talk and assert his or her authority in leadership. High


scores indicate an extravert person, low scores indicate


an introvert person.


• Conscientiousness is a responsible, dependable,


persistent, and achievement oriented person. High scores


indicate that an individual pursue fewer goals in a


purposeful way. Low score indicate an individual is more


easily distracted, pursue many goals are more devoted to


sensual pleasure outside home.


• Agreeableness is a good-natured, cooperative, and


trusting person. This is a measure of an individual


propensity to deter to others. High scores indicate


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an individual value harmony. Low score indicate people


prefer having the individuals say or way on issues.


Emotional stability is a calm, enthusiastic, and secure


individual. High scores indicate positive emotional


stability, low scores indicate negative emotional


stability and openness to experience. An individual is


imaginative artistically sensitive, and intellectually


creative. High scores indicate a wide range of interests


and a fascination with novelty and innovation. Low scores


indicate individuals more conventional and find comfort


in the familiar. An individual’s personality score was


calculated as follows with reverse scoring on those items


marked with an asterisk. Scores in each category


will range from to 15


• Items 1, 6, and 11 - Extraversion - I scored 10.


• Items , 7 and 1 - Agreeableness - I scored 1.


• Items , 8 and 1 - Conscientiousness - I scored 14.


• Items 4, and 14 - Emotional Stability � I scored 15.


• Items 5, 10 and 15 � Openness to Experience � I scored .


The most impressive evidence relates to the


conscientiousness dimension. Studies show that


conscientiousness predicts job performance for all


occupational groups. The preponderance of evidence


indicates that individuals who are dependable, reliable,


thorough, organized, able to plan, and persistent tend to


have higher job performance in most occupations. My MBTI


or Jungian 16 personality scores ENFJ.The Jungian 16 type


personality framework. It classifies people as


extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive


(S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and


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perceiving or judging (P or J). These classifications can


be combined into sixteen personality types such as INTJ,


and ENTP. This questionnaire classifies people as


extroverted or introverted. Some examples and


interpretations of INTJ and ENTP has illustrations of MBTI


or Jungian 16 personality types.


INTJ personality have an original mind and great


drive for own ideas and purposes of individuals.


Individuals are skeptical, critical, independent,


determined, and often stubborn. ESTJ personality types


are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and


have a natural head for business or mechanics.


Individuals like to organize and run things in an


organizational setting. ENTP personality types are


conceptualizers, innovators, individualistic people,


versatile, and entrepreneurial. Individuals tend to


be resourceful in solving challenging problems, but


individuals may neglect routine assignments.


What value can INTJ, ENTP, and ESTJ personalities


classification have for individuals? Personality


classifications can help individuals to understand their


personalities, their strengths and their weaknesses.


Personality classifications can help individuals to find


job that align well with their strengths and avoid factory


and fast-food jobs that are a poor fit. My score in locus


of control is 7. This instrument taps a person’s


perception of the source of his or her fate. Internals


are people who believe that they are masters of their own


fate. They believe that they control their destinies.


Externals see themselves as pawns of fate, believing that


what happens to the them is due to luck or chance. My


score can be interpreted as follows


• 8-10=High Internal Locus of Control


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• 6-7=Moderate Internal Locus of Control


• 5=Mixed


• -4=Moderate External Locus of Control


• 1-=High External Locus of Control.


My locus of control score can provide me with insights


into how well I accept the blame for my actions. Also, my


locus of control score can help me understand my


feelings of alienation or dissatisfaction with work.


Research shows that high externals are less satisfied with


their jobs, are more alienated from the work setting, and


less involved in their jobs than are internals. On the


other hand, high externals seem most satisfied in their


jobs that are well structured, routine and in which


success depends heavily on complying with the direction of


others.


My flexibility score is 55. This instrument taps


a personality trait known as self-monitoring. Self-


monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his


or her behavior to external situational factors.


Individuals are high in self-monitoring show considerable


adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external


situational factors. Self-monitoring individuals are


highly sensitive to external cues can behave differently


indifferent situations. Low self-monitors tend to display


consistent dispositions and attitudes, regardless of the


situation in the workplace and home. High self-monitors


are defined as those with scores of approximately 5 or


higher. When I am a high self-monitor, I am an expert at


reading situations and adjusting my behavior accordingly.


Low self-monitors, because they tend to ignore external


cues and maintain behavioral consistency even when


situations change, are not typically very good at


organizational politics.


Hambright 6


My terminal values are (4) happiness, satisfaction


in life, (5) knowledge and wisdom, () peace and harmony


in the world, () pride in accomplishment, (10) prosperity


and wealth, (6) lasting friendships, (7) recognition from


peers, (8) salvation and finding eternal life, ()


security and freedom from threat and (1) self-respect. My


instrumental values are (1) assertiveness and standing up


for yourself, () being helpful or caring toward others,


(4) dependability and being counted upon by others, ()


education and intellectual pursuits, (5) hard work and


achievement, (10) obedience and following the wishes of


others, () open-mindedness and receptivity to new ideas,


(8) self-sufficiency and independence, (7) truthfulness


and honesty, and (6) being well-mannered and courteous


toward others. Values are basic convictions of what is


right, good, or desirable. My values reflect what I think


is important. There are no right or wrong values in


personality traits. This self-assessment merely gives me


some directive insights into my value structure.


Research demonstrates that people in the same


accounting clerk occupation tend to hold similar values in


the workplace and home. For instance, a study of


corporate managers found that they ranked self-respect and


security as their top-rated terminal values. For


instrumental values, these same corporate managers rated


truthfulness first, followed by dependability. Terminal


and instrument values can be helpful to assess my value


structure in terms of my career aspirations. Specifically,


to what degree do you think your values align with those


successful corporate manager in the field to which I


aspire?


Hambright 7


This motivation instrument taps the three needs of


growth, relatedness, and existence. Motivation instrument


is based on what is known as ERG theory. My scores for


growth, relatedness, and existence needs are all 0. When


I considered all four items within a need category to be


extremely important, I would obtain the maximum total of


twenty points. However, I can currently have a little


income and consider existence needs as most important.


For instance, one student at University of Phoenix in


Atlanta, Georgia scored 0, 10, and 15 for growth,


relatedness, and existence needs. This should be


interpreted to mean that his or her relatedness needs


are already substantially satisfied. One student at


University of Phoenix in Atlanta, Georgia growth needs, on


the other hand, are substantially unsatisfied. Note that


a low score can imply that a need is not important to me


or that the needs is substantially satisfied. However,


the implication is that everyone has growth, relatedness,


and existence needs. So a low score is taken to mean that


this need is substantially satisfied.


How do my ethics rate? No decision is completely


value-free. The ethics rate undoubtedly will have some


ethical dimensions. This instrument present philosophical


positions and practical situations. Rather than


specify “right” answers, this instrument works best when I


compare my answers to those of others. With that in mind,


here are mean responses from a group of 4 management


students. How did my responses compare?


• 4-.0


• -1.88


• 4-.54


• 4-.41


• 5-.88


Hambright 8


• 5-.88


• 5-.6


• 5-.7


• 5-.44


• -1.


• 1-1.58


• 5-.1


• 5-.6


• 5-.7


• 5-.8


Do I tend to be more or less ethical than the student


norms presented above? On which items did I differ most?


My answer to questions can provide insights into how


well my ethical standards match other people with who I


will be working in the future. Large discrepancies can be


a warning that other do not hold the same ethical values


that I do. What is my face-to-face communication style?


There are nine dimensions of communication style. They


are described as follows


• I am dominant and tends to take charge of social


interactions. I scored 1.


• I am dramatic, manipulates, exaggerates stories


and uses other stylistic devices to highlight content. I


scored 6.


• I am contentious and argumentative in persuading


people to buy a product. I scored 6.


• I am animated, frequent and sustained eye contact,


uses many facial expressions, and gestures of ten. I


scored 8.


• I leaves an impression in the workplace by doing a


big payroll project with other co-worker in prorating


vacation and swing holiday to salary and hourly


employees. Am I remembered because of the communicative


stimuli that I projected? I scored 10.


• I am relaxed and avoid of nervousness in the


workplace, in the park and home. I scored 6.


• I am attentive and makes sure that the other


person knows that he or she is being listened to as a


person. I scored 10.


• I am not open and being conversational, expansive,


affable, convivial, gregarious, unreserved, somewhat


frank, definitely extroverted and obviously approachable.


I scored 0.


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• I am friendly from being not hostile to deep


intimacy. I scored 8. The higher my score for any


dimensions, the more that dimension characterizes


my communication style. When I review my results,


consider to what degree my scores aid or hinder my


communication effectiveness. High scores for being


attentive and open would almost and always be positive


qualities. A high for contentious, on the other hand,


could be a negative in many situations. How good are my


listening skills? My score is fifty-one. Effective


communicators have developed good listening skills. This


instrument is designed to provide me with some insights


into my listening skills. Scores range from 15 to 75.


The higher my score, the better listener I am. While any


cut offs are essentially arbitrary, few people score above


60. When my score is 60 or above, my listening skills


are fairly well sharpened. Scores of 40 or less indicate


I need to make serious effort at improving my listening


skills.


How good am I at giving feedback? My score is


self-perceived strengths number 6, and self-perceived


weaknesses number . Along with listening skills,


feedback skills comprise the other primary component of


effective communication. This instrument is designed to


assess how good I am at providing feedback. In this


assessment instrument, the “a” responses are my self-


perceived strengths and the “b” responses are my self-


perceived weaknesses. By looking at the proportion of


my “a” and “b” responses, I will be able to see how


effective I feel when giving feedback and determine where


my strengths and weaknesses lie.


What is my leadership style? My leadership style


is a concern for people scored 10 and a concern for the


task scored 17. This leadership instrument taps the


degree to


Hambright 10


which I am task or people-oriented. Task-orientation is


concerned with getting the job done, while people-


orientation focuses on group interactions and the needs of


individual members. The cut off scores, separating high


and low scores, are approximately as follows


• For task-orientation, high is a score of 10 and


above.


• For task-orientation, low is a score of 10 and


below.


• For people-orientation, high is a score of 7 and


above.


• For people-orientation, low is a score of 7 and


below.


The best leaders are the ones that can balance their task-


people orientation to various situations. A high score on


both would indicate this balance the leaders’ task-


people orientation. When I am too task-oriented, I tend


to be absolute. I get the job done, but at a high


emotional cost. When I am too people-oriented, my


leadership may be overly laissez-faire. People are likely


to be happy in their work, but sometimes at the expense of


productivity.


How good am I at building and leading a team? My


score is 8. Author Stephen Robbins (00, pgs. 577-586)


of this instrument propose that building and leading a


team assesses team development behaviors in five areas


such as diagnosing team development for items 1, 16,


managing the forming stage for items -4, managing the


conforming stage for items 10-1, 14, 15, and managing the


performing stage for items 5, 17, 18. My score will range


between 18 and 108, based on a norm group of 500 business


students, the following can help estimate where I am a


relative to others


• Total score of 5 or above=I am in the top


quartile.


• 7-4=I am in the second quartile.


• 60-71=I am in the third quartile.


• Below 60=I am in the bottom quartile.


Hambright 11


How power-oriented am I? My score is . This


instrument was designed to compute my Machiavellianism


(Mach) score. Machiavelli wrote in the sixteen century


on how to gain and manipulate power. An individual, with


a high-Mach score is a busybody, maintains emotional


distance, and believes that ends can justify the mean. The


National Opinion Research Center, which used this


instrument in a Random Sample of American adults, found


that the national average was 5. High-Machs are more


likely to manipulate more, win more, and persuaded, and


persuade other more than do low-machs. High-Machs are more


likely to shade the truth or act unethically in ambiguous


situations where the outcome is important to business


managers.


What is my preferred type of power? My score is


reward (5), expert (5), and referent (5). Five bases of


power have been identified. Reward is based on the ability


to distribute valuable rewards, coercive is based on fear,


legitimate is based on formal position, expert is based on


possessing knowledge or skill, and referent is based on


other people desire to identify with me. A high score of


4 or greater on any of the five dimensions imply that I


prefer to influence other by using that particular for of


power. A low score of or less suggests that I prefer


not to employ this power base. Managerial positions come


with legitimate, reward, and coercive powers. However,


I do not have to be a manager to have power. When I am


not in a position of formal authority, I can still be a


powerful person in my organization when I focus on


developing my expert and referent power bases.


What is my preferred conflict-handling style? My


scores are competing (16),


Hambright 1


collaborating (17), avoiding (14), accommodating (1), and


compromising (0). Research has identified five conflict-


handling styles. They are defined as follows


• Competing is a desire to satisfy one another


interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to


the conflict. Items 1, 6, 11, and 16 are in this


instrumenttap this style.


• Collaborating is when the parties to a conflict


each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.


Items 5. 10, 15, and 0 are in this instrument tap this


style.


• Avoiding is desiring to withdraw from or suppress


the conflict. Items 4, , 14, and 1 are in this


instrument tap this style.


• Accommodating is willingness of one party in a


conflict to place the opponents interests above his or


her own. Items , 7, 1, and 17 in this instrument tap


this style.


• Compromising is when each party to a conflict is


willing to give up something to gain. Items , 8, 1, and


18 in this instrument tap this style. My conflict-


handling score within each category will range from 4 to


0. The category I scored the highest in is my preferred


conflict-handling style. My next-highest total is my


secondary style.


Ideally, I should adjust my conflict-handling


style to the situation. For instance,


avoidance works well when a conflict is trivial, when


emotions are running high and time is needed to cool the


business managers down, or when the potential disruption


from a more assertive action outweighs the benefits of a


resolution. In contrast, competing


Hambright 1


works well when I need a quick resolution on important


issues when unpopular actions must be taken or when


commitment by others to your solution is not critical.


However, the evidence indicates that most business


managers have a preferred style for handling conflicts.


When “push comes to shove,” this is the style business


managers tend to rely on. My instrument score provides me


with insights into this preferred style. Use the


preferred style information to work against my natural


tendencies when the situation requires competing,


collaborating, avoiding, accommodating, and compromising


styles.


In conclusion, it is my ultimate plan and goal to


continually learn, develop, and work on my leadership


capabilities. What I plan to do in order to improve my


leadership styles is continuing to maximize the good


leadership trait I possess and work on the ones


that needs improving by attending leadership workshop,


continuous reading about leadership in magazines like


Accounting Magazines and John Wiley and sons. Also,


I plan to learn from other people such as a mentor or


business manager, and networking with other successful


people. These are other tools and resources I plan to


utilize in order to maximize my full leadership potential


in my present and future jobs. As I gain more


professional experience and expertise in my accounting


career, I believe I will be a well prepared leader, ready


to meet the demands, and challenges for the future in


leadership accounting management.


Hambright 14


Work Cited


Robbins, Stephens (00), “Organizational Behavior.”


Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 1,


Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 10th


Edition, pgs. 577-586.








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Wednesday, August 22, 2012

“Pop Art turned from the highly personal abstraction of Abstract Expressionism to images from popular culture”. Analyze the work of four Pop artists discussing at least two artworks by each Artist to support your observations using the frames.

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on “Pop Art turned from the highly personal abstraction of Abstract Expressionism to images from popular culture”. Analyze the work of four Pop artists discussing at least two artworks by each Artist to support your observations using the frames.. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality “Pop Art turned from the highly personal abstraction of Abstract Expressionism to images from popular culture”. Analyze the work of four Pop artists discussing at least two artworks by each Artist to support your observations using the frames. paper right on time.

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Pop Art turned form the highly personal abstraction of Abstract Expressionism to images from popular culture. Pop Art was a movement from late 150’s to the early 160’s, predominantly in London and New York. Pop Artists looked at popular culture for their source of inspiration.


Andy Warhol established and enhanced the status of Pop Art. Warhol’s screen-print, “Green Coca Cola” 16 consists of multiple images of coca cola. By the repetition of such a banal object, the audience is reminded of mass production, which was a reflection of their modern day consumer society. Repetition and lack of foreground, middle ground and background has resulted in loss of reality in the artwork which challenges traditional art. It is obvious that Warhol makes a conceptual comparison between celebrities, like Marilyn Manrow, Elvis Presley and Jacqueline Kennedy and commercial products like Coca Cola in his artworks, implying that they are all just corporation products intended for mass consumption.


Warhol was obsessed with fame, food, sex and death and these were the influences of his subject matter. He often depicted horrific car crashed, suicides, electric chair and riot images which he gathered from newspapers. “Red Race Riot” 16 is a silkscreen taken from photographs of an infamous riot in Southern America. Each image seems to be laid down randomly in a busy manner. The repetitiveness has the effect of deflating the disturbing content of the images, which reflects the publics’ immunity to disturbing images of that sort as a result of the media.


Abstract Expressionism was a highly complex style of art making and its understanding was restricted to certain intellectual few. The sudden use of Pop’s banal subject matter had critics up in arms, the Abstract Expressionist were angry that they were loosing their spot light in the art market. Any ordinary person could appreciate Pop Art as a result of the images he depicted and there was a high demand for them by the rich and famous. From Cambells soup cans to Elvis Presley, Warhol brought art down from highbrow into lowbrow. He challenged the unique value of a one-off artwork and went against the modernists’ idea of the originality of the artist as he mass produced his artworks. He referred to his art studio as his “factory” and “want(ed) to be a machine” . He had a team of workers to help him produce his silkscreen as a result; Warhol had little person involvement in the artworks. He challenged and radicalized peoples view of what art really was.


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Claes Oldenburg is a Pop Artist who enjoys playing with the audiences perceptions of what is real and what is fake. Through sculpture he represents commercial foods humorously and transforms these banal objects by changing the size, texture, color, density, and context. “Show String Potatoes Spilling from a Bag”165-6 is a sculpture piece more than meters high of vinyl French fries spilling from a giant vinyl paper bag. This give the audience a strange and new perspective of the products they consume everyday. Potato chips were originally a food of desire; however, Oldenburg has represented them in an unappetizing and unhygienic way. By enlarging the size, the chips have the effect of cascading down onto the audience. The change in texture and color creates a floppy and dirty feel and because it’s displayed on the floor, the chips become highly uneatable. The bag represents the mass production nature of the 160’s.


Oldenburg is attempting to ruin people’s appetite for mainstream fast foods. “ Cheese Burgers with Everything” absolutely ruins the audience appreciation for fast foods. The droopy, mushy layers of food oozing out of the saggy buns give the audience a shock, as well as a laugh. The presentation of “Floor Cone” 16 is so off putting due to the unexpected change in size, texture and context. Presented flopped on the floor, the ice-cream is as tall as a person, and texture is as soft as a cushion. The representation of the foods juxtapose the glorification the media feeds the world.


Oldenburg’s public sculptures are humorous and ironic. He challenges traditional sculpture by representing banal object like “Spoon and Cherry Bridge”, as apposed to heroic masculine men. “Clothespin” 176 stands nearly as high as the multistory building behind it dwarfing the world below it. It ironically makes fun of society’s dependence on prized house hold goods. Oldenburg’s work is an attempt to move art out of its traditional domain and to truly make it popular.


Roy Lichtenstein was the master of the stereotype. He painted comic like images of romance, science fiction and violence. Mimicking comic book style techniques “the dot method” gave the effect of flat prints whilst rejecting the basic principles of art. He transformed lowbrow comic strips into high art. His works were often ironic and had an element of humor. “We Rose Up Slowly” 164 is one of his many paintings inspired by “true romance.” It’s ironic comment of the shallowness and absurdity portrayal of romance and love in their society. The stereotypical young, blond, female often appear in Lichtenstein’s paintings, is hopelessly in love the handsome, dark, man. Both characters are highly exaggerated with artificial emotions which creates fakeness.


“In the Car” 16 is another painting inspired by romance. Another glamorous, love struck blond is the passenger of in a speeding car that is driven by the dark mysterious man. This painting differs to his other artworks as it doesn’t contain speech bubbles, which leaves it up to the audiences’ imagination to draw the conclusion of this couples destiny. He adopted many features of comic book visual effects; the closely cropped composition with close focus on the faces, flat color, simplified shapes and dark outlines.


He made many scenes of explosive action inspired by war comics. Lichtenstein’s Whamm! 16 belongs to a group of pictures made in the early 160s. As a result of its incredibly large size of 4 meters in width and its dramatic subject matter the audience which was based on heroic images of the comics of World War II battles, Whamm! became a historic painting for the Pop generation. He includes onomatopoeic words like “whaaam!” “Snap!” “Bop!” and “Crunch!” which energizes the artwork. Lichtenstein was interested in capturing violent emotion in these dramatic scenes.


Lichtenstein contrasted the original comic strips with his artwork. Comic strips are usually small, easily disposable and quickly read as a part of a sequence image. However, his artworks were on a large scale, permanent images that craved our attention. He borrowed compositions from famous works of art. Lichtenstein’s “Haystacks” 168 reduced Claude Monet’s “Haystacks” 181 into its most basic compositional elements. Monet’s delicate brushworks capturing the light and atmosphere has all been lost and replaced by harsh grids of flat monotone color using crude printing like techniques.


All his subjects are detached from real life. He tried to remove all evidence of his own hand and emotion in his artworks and gave them a carefully crafted machine made appearance. His images reflect the banality of the American consumer culture and reaction against the success and seriousness of Abstract Expressionism.


Robert Rauschenberg stretched the boundaries of the art making process by challenging and braking down tradition. He was one of the founding artists which bridged the gap between Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art. Rauschenberg was known as “the local recycler of Manhattan,” the objects for his “combines” were found on the streets as he walked around his block. “Bed” 155 was a result of a spontaneous act of art creation, when one day he decided that he “didn’t have any money to by canvas” so he used his own bed. Thick gluggy paint was slopped on with both the quilt and the pillow still on. “Bed” was refused entry from New York Spoleto Festival as it was too extreme and outrageous for the traditional art world. Art critics were disgusted and viewed it as “merely a decorative accident with no more meaning than a house-painter’s drips and blobs.”


Rauschenberg often transformed his paintings into free standing three dimensional objects. He believed that “a painting is more real if it is made out of bits of the real world,” therefore in order to represent reality in its truest forms, he has to include bit of everyday life. “Odalisque” 155 is an assemblage of Manhattan junk. Each object has nothing to do with any other object, except that they are apart of a common sculpture piece. It’s the randomness that holds the whole piece together, and is the most essential part of the artwork. “Odalisque” is a humorous piece which got the critics fired up as it challenges all forms of traditional sculpture because it is a ready-made.


By duplicating his artworks in “Factum 1”, 157 and “factum ”, 157, Rauschenberg has challenged the creative spontaneous process. “Factum 1” is a seemingly random assemblage of collage with paint and dribble. “Factum ” is a nearly identical copy with the same collage and dribbled paint. Suggestions that Rauschenberg “fakes” his brushstrokes as the identical works show the control the artist has over his brush marks.


Rauschenberg’s “Persimmon” is an example of his works which has characteristics that are nowadays known as postmodern. He purposely layered down colors, figures and other abstract imagery that stylistically clash. “Apollo” is an example of juxtaposition collaged images with bold colored paints that creates a fragmentation. He does this in an attempt to challenge what art really is. Through his works he challenges tradition and pushes the limits of anti art further and further.


Pop Art turned from the highly personal abstraction of Abstract Expressionism to images of popular culture. Abstract Expressionism was a highly complex style of art making and its understanding was restricted to certain intellectual few. Pop Art’s use of banal subject matters, which were often lighthearted and humorous, opened art to the wider public. Pop Art innovations have significantly paved the way for contemporary art practices.





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Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Human resources at McDonald's

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It is often said that a business is only good as its staff � that without good staff the business is less likely to be successful. Human Resources Management is concerned with getting the best from staff and achieving an efficient and effective workforce � and concerned with ways of doing this. Human resources management covers the personal development and motivation of performance of individuals teams whole selection and department. It looks at how managers and supervisors can support staff to get the best out of them. It deals with day-to-day management issues as listed above.


I have selected McDonald’s as a large organisation to carry out my research to identify the factors that effect how McDonald’s plans it’s human resources on a short-term and a long-term basis, and how McDonald’s operates it’s recruitment and selection of staff procedures.


McDonald’s began in the USA in the USA in 15 with one restaurant. McDonald’s is now the largest and fastest growing Quick Service restaurant in the world. From New York to Newcastle the Golden Arches have become a universal symbol for McDonald’s.


McDonalds opened its first store in the UK on 174 in Woolwich, London and by the year 000, it started to operate over 1000 restaurants.


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The human resource management of McDonald’s covers a variety of activities. The term ‘human resource management’ has largely replaced the old-fashioned word ‘personnel’, which was used in the past.


Human resources management within McDonald’s


The key to human resources management is that it is seen as a strategic concern for McDonald’s. Rather than being simply a specialised function (as a personnel management used to be), it is a concern for all managers.


Managers across McDonald’s are being given responsibilities for selecting, motivating, developing and evaluating employees. All managers are therefore taking on human resource responsibilities. Employees are the most important resources in McDonald’s, particularly in creating a competitive edge.





The types of work covered by human resource management in McDonald’s are as follows


ɨ A policy-making role � establishing major policies that cover the place and importance of people in McDonald’s.


ɨ A welfare role, concerned with looking after people at McDonald’s and their needs.


ɨ A supporting role, concerned with helping other managers to develop their work.


ɨ A bargaining and negotiating role, concerned with acting as an intermediary between different groups and interests


ɨ An administrative role, concerned with the payment of wages the supervision implementation of health and safety laws, etc.


Human resources planning


Like all businesses, McDonald’s require the assistance of staff to carry out the daily activities related to the nature of the organisation. The people are all-important members of staff to McDonald’s and fulfil a key role in its operation. McDonald’s would not be successful without of sophisticated technology, human beings are responsible for setting up correctly, pressing the right buttons and repairing it if it malfunctions.


Once inside McDonald’s staff performs various duties in connection with their roles and McDonald’s expects their work to be of a satisfactory standard, completed within a timescale and to be cost effective. Training is provided to help employees improve their levels of efficiency and this is rewarded with promotion or a bonus in recognition of their efforts.


None of this would occur if the managers had not selected potential workers in a careful way. The skills required can be identified and matched against the abilities of people looking for work. If McDonald’s takes on staffs who are unsuitable, it can cause a number of problems, e.g.


ɨ Poor productivity levels


ɨ Bad feeling among staff


ɨ Dissatisfaction about the job


ɨ High level of absenteeism


ɨ Customer complaints


ɨ Dismissal or resignation


ɨ The search for a replacement.


Human resources planning are concerned with getting the right people, using them well and developing them in order to meet McDonald’s goals. In order meet McDonald’s aims successfully, it is necessary to identify the means of using people in the most effective way and to identify any problems that are likely to occur (for example recruiting the best people) and then coming with solutions.


Demand for labour


McDonald’s demand for human resources is estimated by analysing its future plans and by estimating the levels of activity within McDonald’s.


Methods of forecasting demand


Management estimates


Managers are asked to forecast their staff requirements. They will do this on the basis of past, present and likely future requirements.


Work study techniques


Work-study specialists works out how long various jobs take, using available machinery and equipment.


Provided they know what sales are likely to be, they calculate the numbers of employees required and the hours they will need to work.


Supply of labour


For McDonald’s to work out the supply of labour available it examines the numbers of people available to work, how long they can work for, their ability to do the required job, their productivity (output per head) and other factors.


The supply of labour is made up of two sources


Internal supply


Statistics and information is collected on employees already within McDonald’s. This will cover the following main areas


ɨ The number of employees in a particular job. This figure will give a broad overview of the number in McDonald’s who already possess certain broad categories of skills.


ɨ The skills available. It may be helpful to identify the current skills held by the labour force and to see how many of these are transferable.


ɨ Skills analysis. McDonald’s needs to be sure that it has the right number of people available at the right time but also with the right skills. McDonald’s, therefore, need to assess its present supply of skills across its workforces and to identify the sorts of skills it will require in the future.


A skills inventory of current employees will indicate those who have received recent training and those who will require training. It may be possible to meet the human resource requirements of McDonald’s by training and developing current staff rather than recruiting externally.





ɨ Performance results. McDonald’s gathers various informations about the level of performance of various categories of current employees.


ɨ Promotional potential. An internal promotion changes the availability of existing resources. McDonald’s finds it useful to know how many employees have the skills and the aptitude for promotion to more demanding roles. In addition, McDonald’s finds useful to know how many employees have the potential, with suitable training for promotion.


ɨ Age distribution and length of service. McDonald’s looks at the people who work for the organisation. If there are too many older people then McDonald’s may be storing up problems for itself there may be to many people who are soon going to retire, this leaving McDonald’s without sufficient experienced workers.


If there are too many young people, it may mean that people are not staying long enough to make their mark on McDonald’s. Perhaps promotion prospects are blocked in the organisation so that people are leaving.


Staff turnover


It is important; therefore, to be able to plan retirements within McDonald’s so that they keep a good balance between people who have been in the organisation for a long time and people who are bringing new ideas into the organisation. Staff turnover is analysed in order to help McDonald’s forecast future losses ant to identify the reasons people leave McDonald’s. A degree of staff turnover may be advantageous to McDonald’s as fresh staff can be recruited, promotion channels can be opened up and it may allow for natural wastage when McDonald’s is trying to reduce its workforce. Too high level of staff turnover may mean that there are problems in keeping staff levels up, changes may need to be made improve the environment e.g. working hours, nature of duties, less autocratic management or an improved recruitment method. It will then mean that there would be high additional costs of staff replacement and recruitment, additional training costs, and description to the quality of service.


It is possible to measure the rate at which people are leaving (or staying with) McDonald’s by using two simple methods


 Employee wastage rate


 Labour stability rate.


They are calculated as follow


Stability rate (%)


Number of employees with service of 1 year or more


__________________________________________ X100


Number of employees employed a year ago





Turnover rate (%)


Number of employees leaving in 1 year


_____________________________________ X100


Average number of employees in same period


The external labour market


The external labour market for McDonald’s is made up of potential employees, locally, regionally. There are ranges of factors that affect the size and nature of these labour markets, e.g.


 Changes in the age distribution of the UK population has an affect on the human resource planning of McDonald’s.


 Competition for labour


 The overall level of economy activity


 Educational and training opportunities


 The government policies.


Local employment trends and local skill shortages does not have an impact on McDonald’s because McDonald’s does not really look for skills when recruiting. They train them with the skills, which they think has got the ability of those skills.


Sickness and absent rates


In addition to labour turnover figures, departmental managers are asked to record sickness and absence rates. These are important for McDonald’s to determine the difference between an employee who is genuinely sick and unable to perform his/her duties and an employee who deliberately takes time off without a genuine reason.


Both of these courses of action by a member of staff means that the manager may have to re-allocate work in order to meet customer satisfaction.


Genuine sickness is unavoidable in McDonald’s and can cope with small amounts from time to time. McDonald’s has a system in place to record the hours/days sickness for each employee. There are three main reasons for this


ɨ The total number of days must not exceed those allocated under the terms of the contract and can occur in small batches during the year, e.g. flu, migraine, stomach upset.


ɨ Long-term illness, such as broken leg or a serious operation, may require the work to be covered by a temporary replacement.


ɨ Sickness pay is calculated according to government regulations and a doctor’s certificate is needed if the absence carries on for a long time.


A simple form is used to record the sickness period these is sent to the human resources department to be added to the employee’s personal file. A spreadsheet is used if a central recording system is in operation and this allows access by several sections of McDonald’s, each of who need this data for further actions.


These are likely to be


 The human resources department


 The store manager


 The wages/salaries department.


Staff absent can be calculated using the formula


Absence rate (%)


Number of employee hours lost in period


__________________________________ X100


Total possible employee hours in period


In what circumstances is an employee eligible for Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) in McDonald’s?


If an employee is absent due to sickness or injury for four or more consecutive days may be eligible for SSP.


The rules are


1. They must notify a Manager that they are ill before their scheduled shift giving as much notice as possible.


. The minimum period of illness that qualifies for SSP is four consecutive days. This can include weekends and public holidays.


. From the fourth day absence due to sickness, SSP may be payable for scheduled days if their average weekly earnings over the previous eight weeks exceeded the minimum requirements.


4. When they return to work after a period of sickness of between four and seven days, they must provide a ‘Self Certificate’, which is available from their Doctors or DSS Office.


5. If their illness lasts for more than seven days, they must obtain a Doctor’s Certificate stating the nature of the illness and ensure that the manager receives it. They also need to complete a ‘self certificate’ which is also sent to the manager.


Statutory Sick Pay entitlement is as follows


1. Payment rate requirements are reviewed annually by the DSS, and current rates can be obtained from the restaurant /General Manager or Payroll Department.


. The daily rate of SSP is calculated by the Payroll Department, and is dependent on the number of days they are scheduled per week.


In what circumstances are employees not eligible for SSP?


They will be excluded from SSP if they


ɨ Are over the minimum state pension age on the first day of sickness


ɨ Were taken on for a specified temporary period of no more than three months (unless the contract is extended to more than three months)


ɨ Have average weekly gross earnings less than the lower weekly earning


ɨ Limit for National Insurance contribution liability


ɨ Go sick within 57 days of a previous claim for one of these state benefits


- sickness benefit


- invalidity pension


- severe disablement allowance


- maternity allowance


ɨ have not worked after being issued with contract of employment


ɨ go sick during a stoppage of work at their place of employment due to a trade dispute, unless they have not taken part in he trade dispute and have no direct interest in it


ɨ are off sick during the time starting 6 weeks before they expected week of confinement and ending 1 weeks after


ɨ have already been paid for 8 weeks SSP in any single period of incapacity for work


ɨ re sick while abroad outside the EEC


ɨ are in legal custody


Age, skills and training


These three areas are closely linked and form another part of the recording procedures carried out by human resources staff.


McDonald’s has a range of employees who have worked for different lengths of time and who have different levels of skills and training. The human resources planner seeks to have a balanced of new people entering McDonald’s in order to cover those who are leaving. The human resources planner also wants to make sure that skill levels are rising within McDonald’s, and that training programmes are devised to make sure people have the skills to meet McDonald’s job requirements.


It is more useful for McDonald’s to have a workforce that contains a good spread of age bands. More mature employees tend to have a strong sense of loyalty to McDonald’s but may cause a problem if they all retire at the same time.


Succession planning


This is an important aspect of human resource planning and there are several reasons for it in the development outline of McDonald’s.


First, there is the issue of continuity of performance from the department as well as McDonald’s itself. Any reduction in performance of key staff will affect the quality of service produced and, ultimately, the reputation of McDonald’s will suffer. Once damaged in this way, it is difficult to recoup customer loyalty and so attention is paid to this part of the operation.


Secondly, if McDonald’s suddenly loses several key staff (resignation, retirement, or death), it would cause considerable damage to the internal functions of the particular department.


Thirdly, when authorised absences from work are been taken (holiday) McDonald’s makes sure that they have someone in place.


McDonald’s has assistant managers to step into the store mangers role when he is away to fulfil the duties his/her duties.


Recruitment and selection


The purpose of recruitment is to buy in and retain the best available human resources to meet McDonald’s needs. It is therefore important to be clear about


 What McDonald’s entails


 What qualities are required to do the job


 What incentives are required to attract and motivate the right employee?


Selection involves procedures to identify the most appropriate candidate to fill each post. An effective procedure will therefore take into consideration the following


 Keeping the cost of selection down


 Making sure that required skills and qualities have been specified and developing a process for identifying them in candidates


 Making sure that the candidate selected will want the job, and will stay with McDonald’s.


McDonald’s recruit through out the year. They recruit internally and externally; they mostly recruit their managers and Assistant managers internally rather then externally, because its easier and less training is needed because the candidate already knows the job. Approximately 50% of McDonald’s salaried managers are promoted from within McDonald’s.


What factors does McDonald’s go through when recruiting?


During external recruitment, McDonald’s follows a sheet that is produced by the Head Office, making sure that


 We are going through right procedures


 We are working at the right legal side, i.e. asylum seekers.


How does McDonald’s advertise for vacancies?


McDonald’s places its adverts for vacancies on a notice board in the restaurant, on the window of the restaurant, at the local job centre. But mostly its people coming into McDonald’s and asking for vacancies, not much advertising is needed.


What type of skills do you look for when recruiting staff?


McDonald’s does not look for skills; we look more at the personality. We train them with skills that are needed. But obviously, if a person can’t clean toilets, or is shy and not outgoing then they’re not the right candidate for McDonald’s.


As part of the interview, do you set tasks for the candidates?


We ask if they would do certain tasks. We usually give them a task and see how they would deal with it.


Does McDonald’s assess candidates against job description?


Yes, we have to.


How does McDonald’s ensure that they treat all job applicants equally?


McDonald’s strives to promote a working environment which is free from unlawful harassment, bullying and discrimination. McDonald’s regard’s all of its employees as members of a team where everyone’s opinion is valued, everyone is regarded as equal in status and everyone must always be treated with fairness and respect.


McDonald’s Diversity Policy exists to ensure that no job applicant or existing employee is treated less favourably on the grounds of their gender, marital status, disability, race, colour, nationality or ethnic origin and that no-one is disadvantaged by conditions, requirements or practices which cannot be shown to be just and fair.


The way we recruit and work should ensure that employees are selected, promoted and treated according to their ability and tat everyone has an equal opportunity to receive training and development.


Discrimination


Discrimination is treating a person less favourably because of gender; pregnancy, marital status, disability, ethnic origin or race can be either Direct or Indirect. Direct discrimination occurs when a person is treated less favourably for a reason unconnected with their ability to perform either the job they are doing or the job they are being considered for.


Indirect discrimination, occurs where an unjustifiable requirement or condition is applied which, although in theory applies to everyone, in practice is more difficult for one particular group to meet or fulfil.


Examples of Direct Discrimination include


ɨ Making decisions about whether someone should be offered, or not offered, a job because of their ethnic background


ɨ Making decisions about who should, or should not be promoted or trained because of their disability


ɨ Dismissing an employee because she is pregnant or withdrawing a job offer due to the applicant’s pregnancy.


Examples of Indirect Discrimination include


ɨ Segregating employees onto different work stations or shifts


ɨ Setting standards which some employees are less likely to be able to achieve because of their gender, race, disability etc.


Harassment


Harassment is a form of discrimination and is behaviour which the recipient finds unacceptable and welcomed. Sexual harassment may be direct at both men and women and means any unwelcome and/or unwanted comments, looks, actions, jokes, innuendoes, suggestions or physical contact of a sexual nature that upsets or offends the recipient.


Racial harassment is any unwelcome and/or unwanted comments or behaviours, such as racial mockery; innuendo, abusive language or derogatory remarks based on a person’s race, colour or ethnic origin.


Examples of Sexual Harassment include


ɨ Insensitive jokes, innuendo or pranks


ɨ Lewd comments about appearance


ɨ Unnecessary body contact


ɨ Threatened or actual sexual violence


Examples of Racial Harassment include


ɨ Racial name calling


ɨ Abusive language, mockery and racist jokes


ɨ Display or circulation of racially offensive material


ɨ Exclusion from normal workplace conversation or social events, i.e., being ‘frozen out’.


Bullying is the intentional intimidation of someone through the misuse of power or position which leaves the person feeling upset, undermines their self-confidence and causes harmful stress.


Examples of Bullying include


ɨ Verbal abuse � shouting, swearing or threatening a person


ɨ Physical abuse � shaking, pushing or blocking someone’s way


ɨ Excessive supervision or the misuse of power


All employees have the responsibility to challenge questionable behaviour and practices.


Specific responsibility for equality falls upon the managers, to manage their teams in a manner, which creates a working environment where differences in individuals are valued and respected.


What does the employee do if they have a complaint?


If they think that they are being harassed, bullied or discriminated against they should follow the following steps


ɨ Ask the person to stop


ɨ Ask for help


ɨ Speak to a manager


All complaints will be treated seriously and confidentially whilst an investigation is conducted. No employee bringing a complaint will suffer any detriment as a result of having brought a complaint. Any employee who feels he or she has experienced discrimination, harassment or bullying may be accompanied by a company employee of their choice at any stage of the procedure.


Until an investigation has been completed, there will be no assumption made that the alleged harasser is guilty of the allegations and he/she will be treated fairly and with confidentiality. Appropriate disciplinary action will be taken against employees whose allegation is found to have been malicious.


If the complainant is not satisfied with the way that the complaint has been handled, or with the outcome of the investigation, he/she may ask for it to be reconsidered by the regional manager, whose decision will be final.


The Human Resources department will regularly monitor and review the policy and will take such corrective action as may be necessary to ensure it is being complied with.


Training and Development


What training does the employees receive?


At McDonald’s we believe that training is the foundation of our success. It is an ongoing process that involves all McDonald’s employees � it’s everyone’s job, every day.


The employee will receive induction training followed by a structured development programme relevant to their position. To complete their initial training, they must successfully pass one Observation Check List (OCL) in each area.


Where possible, we aim to integrate learning with workplace. An ongoing programme of training evaluation enables us to keep training up to date and relevant to the needs of the business.


Does McDonald’s have a training programme?


Yes. Initial Training is the development of employees who are competent to work on and have basic job knowledge of each station � the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of the job. Ongoing training provides a more advanced level of job knowledge and competency skills training � the why of the job.


Does the employees have a probationary period?


Yes. The first 1 days of employment with McDonald’s is the probationary period. During the probationary period the employee’s performance will be evaluated in the areas of work standards, personal attributes, teamwork, customer focus, hygiene and their initiatives.


To successfully complete their probationary period they must be satisfactory in both of the hygiene categories on their appraisal. They must also achieve a competency rating of ‘satisfactory’ in ten other areas, giving a total of 1.


If they do not meet the required standards of performance and/or conduct, their employment can be, terminated at any time during their probationary period.


Performance Management


All members of staff take a keen interest in the methods used by McDonald’s to reward them for loyalty and hard work. It is generally recognised that the majority of people go to work for a range of reasons but predominant among these is the need to earn a living wage.


Employers are conscious of the fact that the overall remuneration package for each employee adds up to an exceeding high proportion of any money earned from the sale of goods or services. Because customers demand ever increasing standards of performance plus lower prices, this always places pressure on McDonald’s to search for reductions in operating costs.


The best way to achieve ‘value for money’ is to monitor the performance levels of staff and aim to reduce wasteful activities. One of the features that McDonalds monitor are the quality of work being produced and the efficiency levels within departments. These are important in the point of view that customers will not return to McDonald’s for repeat purchase if staff are inefficient, because too many complaints and uncompleted tasks will push up costs to an exorbitant figure.


In some cases, poor performance will lead to dismissal but if inefficiency is allowed to continue unchecked, staff will lose interest, motivation will be reduced and there will be no incentive to produce god quality products. McDonald’s will be unable to reward staff under these conditions because profits will be insufficient to cover high wage costs plus benefits. It is no one’s interest to allow this to happen and McDonald’s strive to avoid this scenario by ensuring staff are fully aware that their efforts are appreciated and therefore continually measured.


By monitoring progress, departmental managers can assess the efficiency of staff and determine which ones are meeting the terms of their contract and contributing to McDonald’s success.


In the quest for efficiency, a comprehensive process of performance measurements are central to the fair distribution of rewards. A number of stages are set and part of the recruitment procedure is to gain staff with a high level of commitment to the aims and objectives of McDonald’s.


McDonald’s mission statement


‘To be the UK’s best quick service restaurant experience’.


Goals


ɨ Increased profitability


ɨ 100% customer satisfaction


ɨ Increased Market Share.


From this framework, the human manager sets up strategies to assist departmental managers to measure their staff performance levels.


How does an employee know if they are doing well?


We will tell the employee if they do a good job and also point out where things can improve. Particularly in the first few weeks their progress will be monitored carefully and there will be a formal assessment at the end of their probationary period. Once they have completed their probation we will assess their performance on a regular basis.


When we have their performance appraisal their grading will be based on their personal attributes, teamwork, work standards, hygiene, initiative and customer focus. They will receive a copy of their performance review, so they will be able to see how well they are doing. As long as their performance is satisfactory they will receive a pay increase. Their pay is reviewed at 4 months, 1 months, and every 6 months thereafter.


The percentage pay increase are shown in the table below


Performance Guideline


If their performance does not meet the required standards, or, at the manger’s discretion, an interim appraisal may be conducted.


A ‘Needs Improvement’ rating on two consecutive performance appraisals will result in disciplinary action being taken. Thereafter a satisfactory standard must be achieved or further disciplinary action will be taken. An ‘Unsatisfactory’ rating will result in disciplinary action being taken.


Do you offer any over increases?


Yes, we have a merit increase, promotion and promotional increases.


Restaurant/General Managers and personnel senior to them, can award employees merit increases over and above the performance review system for outstanding work or effort.


Our policy is to actively promote from within. If an employee does well in their job their Manager may consider them for promotion. If they are promoted, and their current rate of pay is above the minimum rate for their new position they will be awarded a promotional increase, which will be based on their last performance rating.


What opportunities are their for the employees within McDonald’s?


Many of our finest managers and senior company personnel have been promoted from within our restaurants.


We also have a Junior Business Management Programme and a Trainee Management Programme.


What is the Junior Business Management Programme?


The Junior Business Management Programme is open to anyone aged 18/1 years of age, educated to ‘A’ level or equivalent standard and wishing to continue a career in McDonald’s. The Junior Business Management programme has been designed to give complete training in the basic management functions of McDonald’s restaurant, whilst also pursuing a specific course of further education.


What is the Trainee Management Programme?


Whether an employee has joined McDonald’s on a part time basis to help finance their education, or commenced work with us whilst deciding career path to take, we may have opportunities for them.


McDonald’s employees have a wealth of talent and it is our aim promote this potential. Approximately 50% of our salaried management are promoted from within McDonald’s.


Many of these employees have already experienced the benefits of working for us and have the skills and attributes required by McDonald’s today.


With this in mind we are constantly looking to identify restaurant employees who show the required competencies. It does not matter whether they have worked for us for a day or a decade.





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Wednesday, August 8, 2012

My Fair Lady

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on My Fair Lady. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality My Fair Lady paper right on time.

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“My Fair Lady”, originally from playwright Georges Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion, was adapted by lyricist Alan Jay Lerner into the present day musical. It currently entertains audiences at Playhouse in the Park with music by composer Frederick Loewe. Daniel Pelzig provides instruction for numerous dance numbers as choreographer during the performance showing in Cincinnati. I was able to catch a performance of the play this past Saturday. “My Fair Lady” is a comical and light-hearted Cinderella story that has the audience hoping that the prince will finally discover his love for our heroine while going through a dynamic change himself.


The musical provided an interesting way of presenting the story with a skeleton cast present of only ten performers. Due to the fact, many actors in “My Fair Lady” were forced to reprise several different roles. Shakespearian themes are even revived in one scene where one male is dressed as a woman with make-up and all.


Henry Higgins, portrayed by Neal Benari, and Eliza Doolittle, played by Crista Moore, represent our two main characters. Eliza Doolittle is a flower girl from the wrong side of the track who is thrown into the world of Professor Henry Higgins. Henry as form of entertainment and as a bet, puts Eliza through rigorous refining lessons to prove to that he can make her a lady. As time goes by, the two form a connection with each other that forces each of our lead characters to reconsider their values.


Neal Benari’s portrayal of Professor Higgins to me lacked brevity. It seemed during the performance I longed for an actor that was more dominant. Professeur Higgins character is extremely arrogant, Crista Moore’s performance of Eliza Doolittle was outstanding. During the beginning scene of the play where she is a flower girl on the street and she speaks to the fellow cast, her British accent is impeccable. I enjoyed her rendition of “ Wouldn’t It Be Lovely” and almost had to hold myself back from singing along.


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Sunday, August 5, 2012

cal

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Da der Leser nun mit der Geschichte (Nord-) Irlands vertraut ist und die Zusammenhänge in ,,Cal besser verstehen kann, wende ich mich dem Roman zu. Im Zentrum der Handlung steht ein katholischer Junge, der gegen seinen Willen in den Strudel der Gewalt in Nordirland hineingezogen wird und untergeht. Der 1-jährige, arbeitslose Cal Mc Cluskey und sein Vater Shamie leben als letzte verbliebene Katholiken in einem typisch protestantischen, ziemlich trostlosen Viertel. Einziger größerer Arbeitgeber ist ein Schlachthof, bei dem fast alle Männer - so auch Shamie - arbeiten. Cal hat den Job nach wenigen Tagen zur großen Enttäuschung seines Vaters aufgegeben, weil er den Gestank und die Gewalt im Schlachthaus nicht ertragen konnte. Nun schlägt er alleine seine Zeit tot, da er als Katholik in einem protestantischen Umfeld weder Aussichten auf eine andere Anstellung noch Freunde hat. Der einzige Gleichaltrige, zu dem Cal Kontakt hat, ist sein ehemaliger Schulfreund Crilly, der Mitglied in einer republikanischen paramilitärischen Organisation ist. Kopf dieser Terrorgruppe ist Skeffington, ein fanatischer Nationalist , der für seine Ziele über Leichen geht. Wahrscheinlich auf sein Geheiß hin wurde von Crilly Robert Morton, ein Mitglied der Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), der nordirischen (antikatholischen) Polizei, ermordet. Auch Cal war als Fahrer des Fluchtautos in den Mord verwickelt. Der Gedanke an die Bluttat und seine Schuld quält und verfolgt ihn bis in seine Träume.


Als in der Bücherei, die Cal aus Langeweile öfter besucht, eine neue Bibliothekarin arbeitet und sich herausstellt, dass diese die Witwe des erschossenen Polizisten ist, fühlt Cal sich zu der um Jahre älteren Frau, ihr Name ist Marcella, hingezogen; zunächst nur von Schuldgefühlen getrieben, beginnt er, sie zu beobachten, sucht ihre Nähe. So entsteht ein loser Kontakt zwischen den beiden, der sich vertieft, als Cal auf dem Bauernhof ihrer Schwiegereltern, wo auch Marcella lebt, Arbeit findet.


Als radikale Protestanten das Haus der Mc Cluskeys niederbrennen, zieht Cal heimlich in die verfallene Hütte auf dem Morton-Gelände. Nicht einmal seinem Vater Shamie vertraut er seinen Aufenthaltsort an und lässt den durch den Verlust des Hauses gebrochenen Mann allein zurück. Cal hofft, durch sein spurloses Verschwinden vor den Nachstellungen Crillys und Skeffingtons sicher zu sein, die ihn zu einem Verbleib in der Terrorgruppe und zu weiteren ,,Aktionen zwingen wollen.


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Als Cals Versteck von den Mortons entdeckt wird, hat er Glück, denn Marcella hat Mitleid mit dem ausgebrannten jungen Mann und überredet ihre Schwiegermutter, ihn in der Hütte wohnen zu lassen. Die beiden sehen sich oft und werden immer vertrauter, da die Witwe Cal beim Einrichten seiner neuen Bleibe behilflich ist.


Allerdings entsteht damit auch ein Problem für Cal. Denn je näher sich Cal und die Witwe kommen, je stärker seine Gefühle für die ahnungslose Frau werden, desto schlimmer quält ihn seine Schuld. Als Mrs Morton ihren Mann, der bei dem Überfall damals schwer verletzt wurde, für einige Tage ins Krankenhaus begleitet und Cal und Marcella so allein auf dem Hof zurück bleiben, werden die beiden nach anfänglichem Zögern Marcellas ein heimliches Liebespaar.


Doch das Glück währt nicht lange. Als Cal am Morgen nach der Liebesnacht in die Stadt fährt, um Weihnachtsgeschenke für Marcella und deren Tochter Lucy zu besorgen, wird er von Crilly entdeckt, der gerade eine Bombe in der Bücherei versteckt hat. Die Lage ist für Cal bedrohlich, da Crilly und vor allem der schnell herbei geeilte Skeffington Cal als einen Verräter an der ,,Sache und Deserteur betrachten und ihn auch dem entsprechend bestrafen wollen. Aber dazu kommt es nicht mehr. Bei einer Razzia werden Crilly und Skeffington verhaftet, Cal gelingt die Flucht. Ihm ist aber klar, dass seine Tage in Freiheit gezählt sind, weil seine ,,Kameraden ihn verraten werden. Cal findet endlich den Mut, endgültig mit der Terrororganisation zu brechen. Über eine sog. ,,confidential line warnt er vor der Brandbombe in der Bücherei und verabschiedet sich von Marcella. Am nächsten Morgen wird Cal Mc Cluskey verhaftet.


Die Romanfiguren und der Nordirlandkonflikt


Die zerstörerische Wirkung des Konflikts verdeutlicht der Autor v.a. an Hand seiner Hauptpersonen.


Die Auswirkungen des Konflikts auf den Protagonisten


Besonders der Titelheld Cal Mc Cluskey wird von den nordirischen Verhältnissen geprägt. Dabei hat der junge Mann es auch ohne die vertrackte politische Lage schon schwer genug. Seine Mutter starb an einer Gehirnblutung, als der Junge acht Jahre alt war. Auch sein Bruder Brendan, von dessen Existenz der Leser nur in einem Nebensatz erfährt, ist tot. Seine Mutter fehlt Cal sehr. Auch als fast erwachsener Mann kommen ihm beim Gedanken an sie die Tränen.


Cal lebt allein mit seinem spröden Vater Shamie, der ihm die Mutter nicht voll ersetzen kann. Obwohl er seinen Vater liebt, fehlt das Vertrauen mit ihm über seine Verstrickung in den Mord an Morton zu reden. Man kann also sagen, dass Cal der Rückhalt aus einer intakten Familie fehlt und sein Vater keine wirkliche Vertrauensperson ist.


Aber wie gesagt hat vor allem der Nordirlandkonflikt verheerende Auswirkungen auf den Jungen. Auf der einen Seite ist Cal ein Opfer der fest gefahrenen Lage in Nordirland, da er und sein Vater die letzten verbliebenen Katholiken in einem protestantischen Arbeiterviertel sind. Ihre Konfession macht sie zu Außenseitern und grenzt sie vom sozialen Leben weitgehend aus.


Als Katholik ist Cal quasi zur Arbeitslosigkeit verurteilt und hat kaum Chancen auf eine Stelle; es bereitete Shamie schon genug Probleme seinen Sohn einen Job im Schlachthof zu verschaffen, in dem laut Shamie ,,few enough Catholics arbeiten. Nach Cals Kündigung stehen seine beruflichen Chancen so schlecht, dass er sogar überlegt wegzuziehen. Seine Arbeitslosigkeit spiegelt haargenau die Situation vieler nordirischer Katholiken wider und bestätigt die bereits im geschichtlichen Teil angesprochene Benachteiligung auf dem Arbeitsmarkt.


Die politische Lage in Nordirland macht Cal nicht nur zu einem Arbeitslosen ohne Perspektive, sondern macht ihn und seinen Vater auch zum Ziel von Anfeindungen. Schon früh muss der junge Mann erfahren, was Vorurteile und offene Feindseligkeit bedeuten ,,As he turned into his street he felt the eyes on him. [...] He could not bear to look up and see the flutter of the Union Jacks, and now the red and white cross of the Ulster flag with ist red hand...Cal felt it was aimed at them, the Mc Cluskeys, because his father andhe were the only Catholic family left in the whole estate... Cal detested the condescension of some of the Protesant men he met about the town. `You`re Shamie Mc Cluskey`s boy? A good man, Shamie.`And implied in everything they were saying was `for a Catholic `.There was faint affectionate amazement on their faces that there should be a Catholic who was a good man, someone to equal them. In dieser bis auf einige Ausnahmen offen feindseligen Umgebung ist Cal isoliert, wie er später Marcella erzählt. Als sie ihn fragt, ob er viele Freunde habe, antwortet er ,,�No, not many.`4 Der Hass zwischen den Angehörigen der Konfessionen nimmt ihm die Möglichkeit, soziale Kontakte zu knüpfen, was für jeden jungen Menschen enorm wichtig ist.


Doch einigen Protestanten sind Anfeindungen und Ausgrenzung noch zu wenig. Ihr Hass beschränkt sich nicht auf mehr oder weniger offene Diskriminierungen. Cal und sein Vater sind auch Drohungen und Gewalt ausgesetzt. Sie erhalten Drohbriefe der loyalistischen Terrorgruppe Ulster Volunteer Force. Cal wird von jungen Unionisten brutal zusammengeschlagen und entkommt nur mit knapper Not. Als trauriger Höhepunkt werden die Mc Cluskeys auch noch Opfer eines Brandanschlags, ihr Haus wird ein Raub der Flammen. Der Verlust seines Rückzugsortes wirft Cals Vater völlig aus der Bahn, so dass er schließlich als gebrochener Mann in eine Nervenklinik eingeliefert werden muss. Mit dem Haus verliert Cal also auch seinen Vater. Er ist eindeutig ein Opfer der Verhältnisse in Nordirland.


Seine Opferrolle macht Cal tragischer Weise auch zum Täter. Als die Mc Cluskeys zum ersten Mal bedroht werden und Shamie seinen Kollegen davon erzählt, bietet ihm prompt Crilly zum Selbstschutz einen Revolver an, welchen Cals Vater dankbar annimmt. Dieser Crilly, ein ehemaliger Schulfreund Cals, gehört einer republikanischen paramilitärischen Organisation an und hilft nicht aus purer Nächstenliebe. Quasi als Gegenleistung werden im Haus der Mc Cluskeys ,,cardboard boxes full of stuff [...] wrapped in sacking and black polythene [...]5 versteckt, also Operationsmittel der Terrorgruppe. Außerdem muss Cal als Fahrer fungieren, wenn diese Päckchen weitergeleitet werden. Doch bei solch eher harmlosen Aktionen bleibt es nicht. Cal lässt sich tief in die mörderischen Machenschaften der Organisation hineinziehen und wird somit zum Täter. Er sitzt am Steuer des Fluchtwagens, als Crilly den protestantischen Polizisten Robert Morton erschießt.


Seine Beteiligung an dem Mord hat schwerwiegende Folgen für Cal.


Die Erinnerung daran verfolgt und quält den jungen Mann; er wird mit seiner Schuld nicht fertig. Unaufhörlich zermartert er sich den Kopf ,,[...] to eat again the ashes of what he had done.6. Die Schuld ist sein ständiger Begleiter, er fühlt sich durch die Tat gezeichnet ,,He felt that he had a brand stamped in blood in the middle of his forehead which would take him the rest of his life to purge.7


Seine permanenten Schuldgefühle haben eine verhängnisvolle psychische Wirkung auf den jungen Mann. Er steigert sich in einen regelrechten Selbsthass hinein. Cal ist, wie es im Roman drastisch formuliert wird, ,,sick of himself8. Dies wird an einigen Stellen des Romans überdeutlich. Eine seiner ,,Freizeitbeschäftigungen ist z.B., sich selbst aufs Übelste zu beleidigen. Um passende Schimpfnamen für sich selbst zu finden, bietet Cal all seine Kompetenz in Fremdsprachen auf ,,Dirty vache. You big crotte de chien. Sogar einen Großteil seiner Kirchenbesuche verbringt er auf diese Weise ,,The rest of his prayers consisted of telling himself how vile he was. If he was sick of himself, how would God react to him? �Merde. Dog-shit. Crotte de vache` 0


Besonders schlimm quält ihn seine Schuld immer dann, wenn er mit Marcella zusammen ist. In ihrer Gegenwart sieht er noch klarer, wie schwer seine Tat wiegt ,,Sometimes in her presence he felt like Quasimodo - as if the ugliness of what he had done showed in his face. The brand in the middle of his forehead would never disappear and seemed to throb when she was near. Alone [...] he relaxed into his ugliness.1 Seine Vergangenheit treibt Cal in einen ständigen Zwiespalt, der ihn zu zerreißen droht. In Marcella hat er endlich die Frau gefunden, mit der er über wirklich alles reden möchte, auch über das, was er getan hat. Zu gerne würde er ihr sein Herz ausschütten und sich alles von der Seele reden ,,He wanted to confess to her, to weep and to be forgiven. He saw the scene in his mind of her holding him, comforting him; he saw the scene as he knew it would be in reality and it horrified him. Doch gleichzeitig weiß der junge Mann, dass ein Geständnis unmöglich ist und ihre Beziehung zerstören würde. Die Liebe zu der arglosen Witwe bringt Cal in eine Art Teufelskreis. Je schlimmer ihn die Erinnerung an den Mord quält, desto größer ist wiederum das Bedürfnis ihr zu beichten. Dieser Zustand belastet Cal so sehr, dass er am Ende sogar erleichtert wirkt, als er verhaftet wird. Er ist ,,grateful that at last someone was going to beat him within an inch of his life.


Der Mord an Morton hat noch andere Konsequenzen. Cal versucht endlich aus der Terrorgruppe auszusteigen. Deshalb wird er von Crilly und Skeffington, dem Kopf der Bande, unter Druck gesetzt ,,`I still want out.` [Cal said] Skeffington put his hand on Cal`s sleeve.` That creates a big problem, Cahal. It would be out of my hands. I wouldn`t like to see you hurt.`4. Trotzdem ist Cal lange Zeit nicht hartnäckig und entschlossen genug, sich gegen Crilly und Skeffington durchzusetzen und gibt den Argumenten und Drohungen des raffinierten Rhetoriktalents Skeffington immer wieder nach. So lebt er bis zum Schluss in ständiger Angst, zu neuen Verbrechen gezwungen zu werden.


Wie viele Nordiren ist Cal also gefangen in der festgefahrenen und verhärteten Situation seiner zerrissenen Heimat. Die dortigen Verhältnisse lassen ihm keine große Entscheidungsfreiheit, gegen seinen Willen und sein Gewissen wird er in den blutigen Konflikt hineingezogen, der das Leben und die Zukunft der Menschen zerstört. Ein Sich-Heraushalten scheint unmöglich, geschweige denn ein ruhiges Dasein an der Seite der Frau, die er liebt. Cals Schicksal steht damit symbolisch für die Hoffnungslosigkeit einer ganzen Region und die brutalen nordirischen Verhältnisse, die auch Friedfertigen keinen Ausweg lassen.


Shamie und der Nordirlandkonflikt


Mit ähnlichen Problemen wie sein Sohn hat Shamie, Cals Vater, zu kämpfen. Er hat seine Frau und seinen Sohn Brendan verloren. Seit dem Tod seiner Frau muss er als allein erziehender Vater den Alltag bewältigen und versuchen, dem Sohn die Mutter zu ersetzen, was nicht immer leicht für ihn ist. Da es ihm schwer fällt über Gefühle offen zu reden, zeigt er im Umgang mit seinem Sohn selten, wie wichtig Cal für ihn ist. Trotzdem ist ihr Verhältnis von verhaltener, spröder Zuneigung geprägt, die ohne viele Worte auskommt. Dies kann man aus Begegnungen zwischen Vater und Sohn erkennen, z.B. als beide, nachdem sie den zweiten Drohbrief radikaler Protestanten erhalten haben, nicht schlafen können und mitten in der Nacht in Shamies Zimmer sitzen und Tee trinken ,,�Thanks, Cal,` he [Shamie] said when he got his tea. He said it quietly and Cal, for some reason, was moved. The bedside light shone downwards, accentuating the shadows of Shamie�s face, making him look older than he was.[...] Shamie looked at him and said. `Put my jacket on or you`ll freeze.` 15 Diese leisen Gesten zeigen, mit wieviel gegenseitiger Achtung, Rücksichtnahme und Zuneigung sich die beiden gegenüber stehen.


Auch auf Shamie wirft der Nordirlandkonflikt seinen Schatten, obwohl sein Verhältnis zu Protestanten auf den ersten Blick recht entspannt wirkt. Mit den Nachbarn kommt er gut aus, sogar mit dem eingefleischten Oranier Cyril Dunlop plauscht er freundlich. Für einen Katholiken ist Cals Vater bei den Protestanten angesehen. ,,He is popular with both Catholics and Protestants...6 steht im Anhang der Penguin-Ausgabe von ,,Cal über ihn zu lesen.


Doch im Laufe der Handlung zeigt sich, dass das Verhältnis nur oberflächlich so gut ist, wie es zunächst den Anschein hat. Alltäglich, besonders an seinem Arbeitsplatz bekommt Shamie die Herablassung seiner protestantischen Kollegen zu spüren. Diese bezeichnen ihn zwar als �good man`7 , doch unterschwellig schwingt immer mit �for a Catholic` 8. In diesem ,,Lob steckt eine nur schlecht versteckte Diskriminierung. Dazu kommen Ungerechtigkeiten und Drohungen, denen er und sein Sohn beinahe schutzlos ausgeliefert sind, wie z.B. die Drohbriefe durch die UVF. So hat Shamie eine beinahe hilflos wirkende antibritische Haltung angenommen. England sei ,,�rotten to the core`` , wird er nicht müde zu sagen. Den Überfall auf Cal, der wohl mangels Aussichten auf Ermittlungserfolge nicht einmal angezeigt wird, kommentiert Shamie ohnmächtig und verbittert mit den Worten ,,�And they say it�s a free bloody country.` 40 . Der Autor zeigt an Shamies Beispiel die in den siebziger Jahren alltägliche Diskriminierung der Katholiken, die zu Bitterkeit und Misstrauen gegenüber dem Staat, der Polizei und somit den Protestanten führten.


Obwohl Cals Vater wohl die alltägliche ,,Dosis Verachtung verletzt und verbittert, würde er nie auf den Gedanken kommen, deswegen zur Waffe zu greifen. Dies zeigt sich daran, wie er mit der Pistole verfährt, die Crilly ihm und Cal nach dem ersten Drohbrief zukommen lässt. Er benutzt sie ausschließlich zur Verteidigung, d.h., er kramt sie nur hervor, wenn er sich - z.B. durch eine erneute Drohung der UVF - akut gefährdet fühlt.


An der Reaktion auf die Drohungen der Ulster Volunteer Force, einer loyalistischen Terrororganisation, die die Mac Cluskeys aus dem Viertel jagen will, zeigt sich ein Charakterzug Shamies, der sich als verhängnisvoll erweist. Er ist extrem stur und nicht gewillt, sich dem Druck zu beugen. Er besteht darauf, in dem Haus zu bleiben, an dem er mit jeder Faser seines Herzens hängt und mit dem zahlreiche Erinnerungen, wohl v.a. an seine Frau, verbunden sind ,,Fear had driven the others out but his father would not move. He was stubborn at the best of times but if he thougt pressure was being applied to him he was ten times worse. `No Loyalist bastard is going to drive me out of my home. They can kill me first.`41 Für diese Unbeugsamkeit muss Shamie mit dem Verlust seines Hauses bezahlen. Der Verlust seines Rückzugsorts und der damit verbundenen Erinnerungen nimmt ihm nicht nur die Existenz, sondern wirft den alten Mann völlig aus der Bahn. Shamie verfällt zusehends, wird gleichgültig und depressiv ,,The minute Cal saw his father he knew there had been a terrible change in him. The man had aged twenty years in a couple of weeks. He sat in Dermot Ryan`s chair, his arms lying limply on the arm-rests. The flesh of his face had almost disappeared and what was left seemed to have slipped and sagged.4 Shamies Verfall schreitet schließlich so weit fort, dass er in eine psychatrische Anstalt eingeliefert werden muss.


Shamie ist ein Paradebeispiel dafür, wie ein völlig Unschuldiger, der sich aus dem Konflikt heraushalten will, an dem unmenschlichen Hass in der nordirischen Gesellschaft zerbricht. Durch Shamie führt Mac Laverty dem Leser vor Augen, dass der Nordirlandkonflikt nicht unbedingt Bomben braucht, um Menschen zu zerstören.


Marcella - die Witwe


Eine Figur, die den Nordirlandkonflikt aus einem anderen Blickwinkel erlebt, ist Marcella, die Witwe des erschossenen Polizisten.


Die Situation ist für die Mutter einer kleinen Tochter nicht leicht. Trotz der politischen Lage hat sie als Katholikin einen Protestanten geheiratet und damit bewiesen, dass sie über den Vorurteilen und eingefahrenen Denkweisen steht. Sich so über die gesellschaftliche Situation hinwegzusetzen erforderte mit Sicherheit Mut. Allerdings muss sie erfahren, dass ein echtes Miteinander von Katholiken und Protestanten schwierig ist. Denn die Familie und die Freunde ihres Mannes akzeptierten zwar Roberts Entscheidung, eine Katholikin zu heiraten, doch wirkliche Freundschaft hat Marcella mit niemandem aus dem Umfeld ihres verstorbenen Mannes geschlossen. ,,`Sometimes I feel very isolated out here. After Robert was killed I suddenly found I had no friends. Oh yes, they called and did everything they could for me a couple of months. But they were all his friends. Then they just faded...` 4, berichtet sie Cal in einem Gespräch. Sie ist genauso isoliert wie die Mc Cluskeys.


Auch nachdem sie der Norirlandkonflikt zur Witwe gemacht hat, lebt Marcella weiterhin bei ihren Schwiegereltern. Dort fühlt sie sich eingeengt und bevormundet,,`Mrs Morton treats me like a schoolgirl, I suppose. I fight back but she always has the last word. `44 Marcella möchte zwar ausziehen, doch sie kann sich nicht befreien Zum einen kann sie sich nicht gegen ihre Schwiegermutter durchsetzen, die sie immer wieder zum Bleiben überredet. So sagt Marcella, als Cal sie zum Weggehen bewegen möchte ,,`Yes, that sounds so easy. I`ve told her that many times. I wish I wasn`t so weak. I wish I could fight with her and insult her. But if it comes to a crisis she always wins... It`s been a year now, and every time I tell her I`m moving something comes up and she persuades me to stay. For Lucy`s sake. For Grandad`s sake. After Easter.` 45. Zum anderen fühlt sie sich ihren Schwiegereltern, die beide krank sind - Mrs Morton leidet an Parkinson, ihr Mann laboriert an den Folgen seiner Schussverletzungen -, verpflichtet.


Vom Durchschnitt der im Roman dargestellten Personen unterscheidet sich Marcella auch durch ihre Interessen. Sie ist gebildet, sie liebt Bücher und interessiert sich für Kunst. So versucht sie z.B. Cal zum Lesen zu ermuntern und diskutiert mit ihm über Grünewalds Gemälde von der Kreuzigung Jesu. Mit ihrem Sinn für Literatur und Kunst bildet Marcella einen Gegensatz zum tristen Arbeitermilieu, in dem Cal zu Hause ist und in dem man ein Buch nur deshalb zur Hand nimmt, um eine Bombe darin zu verstecken.


Vor allem durch ihre Einstellung zum Nordirlandkonflikt hebt sich Marcella von Cals gewohnter Umgebung ab. Durch ihre Heirat mit einem Protestanten lernte sie beide Konfliktparteien kennen, hat quasi direkten Umgang mit dem ,,Feind. Marcella kennt also beide Seiten und kann sich mit keiner der beiden Parteien identifizieren, da sie sieht, dass Katholiken wie Protestanten Gewalt- und Gräueltaten begehen. Diese Gewalt erschreckt sie und stößt sie ab ,,�That people want physically to hurt one another. I suppose at school it`s the thing to do -young men of the species showing off to become the leader of the herd- but you would think people would grow up.`46 Marcella sieht den Konflikt also mit völlig anderen Augen als die meisten Nordiren, da sie sich keiner der beiden Seiten zugehörig fühlt. Sie schämt sich vielmehr für ihr Land, wie aus einem Tagebucheintrag ersichtlich wird, in dem sie einen Anschlag republikanischer Extremisten auf eine Kneipe in Birmingham kommentiert ,,Last night 1 people died and 00 were injured in Birmingham. A slaying of total innocents - not even the callous excuse of a pub frequented by soldiers. I thougt we should never reach the day of atrocious equivalent to the Arab/Israeli unpleasantness. I am deeply ashamed of my country. From now on I think I will say I am an Italian. 47


Mit Marcella stellt Mac Laverty ein anderes Stück Nordirland vor, einen Menschen, der die Gewalt verabscheut, die in den Six Counties allgegenwärtig war/ist, und für den die unschuldigen Opfer im Vorgergrund stehen und nicht irgendwelche politischen Ziele. Marcella ist eine Frau, der die hassverzerrte Situation so fremd ist, dass sie am liebsten weg möchte ,,�I`d like to go and live in Italy` 48, erklärt sie Cal in einem Gespräch. Damit entspricht sie in gewisser Weise dem Autor selbst, der 17 vor der Gewalt in Belfast floh und mit seiner Familie nach Schottland umzog. In einem Interview mit der taz äußerte er 11 ,,Immer noch sterben Menschen, nur weil sie zu einer bestimmten Gruppe gehöre, zur blauen oder roten Seite, zu den Protestanten oder Katholiken. Jeden Tag stirbt in Belfast ein Mensch. [...] Ich jedenfalls werde nicht hinnehmen, dass Leid und Tod Grundvoraussetzungen für eine Wiedervereinigung Irlands sein sollen. Niemals würde ich eins meiner Kinder dafür hingeben, nur damit Irland wieder eins ist. Das ist eine nationalistische Idee des Hasses, mehr nicht. 4.


Cyril Dunlop - der Oranier


Ein Charakter, der dem Leser wiederum eine völlig andere Sichtweise auf die Situation in Nordirland bietet ist der Vorarbeiter auf der Morton-Farm und eingefleischte Oranier Cyril Dunlop, der exemplarisch steht für die Gruppe der vorurteilsbeladenen, festgefahrenen Protestanten. In direkten Gesprächen mit Cal entlarvt er sich selbst. Sein Rezept gegen den Terror ist so einfach wie brutal ,,�This whole bloody business [der Terror; Anmerkung der Verfasserin] would be cleared up overnight if they brought back hanging. If only they would give the Army a bit of freedom. [...]. Beat the shite out of the bastards.` [...]�And even if they do tramp on a few innocent toes, isn`it better that way than giving the IRA the freedom of the country? Root them out, that`s what I say.` [...] �Long Kesh is full of known IRA prisoners, isn�t it?`[...] �Well, every time a policeman or soldier is shot I would put two of those bastards up against the wall and blow their brains out [...]` 50Als Cal fragt, ob Cyril das selbe Rezept auch auf Protestanten anwenden würde, entgegnet er ,,`Maybe. But it�s not the same thing. That�s the lunatic fringe. They get mad seeing good men shot down day after day. So would you. When you`re fed up shadow-boxing you sometimes turn and hit the referee.`51 . Cyril zeigt, wes Geistes Kind er ist. Er macht deutliche Unterschiede zwischen den Konfessionen. Er ist nicht so offen und unvoreingenommen, wie er sich Cal gegenüber gerne gibt, z.B. als er Cals Vater lobt. Für loyalistische Terroristen bringt er, ohne mit der Wimper zu zucken, Verständnis auf, ihre republikanischen Gegenüber möchte er am liebsten als Geiseln nehmen und im Falle des Falles erschießen.


Als echter Oranier ist Cyril mit jeder Faser seines Herzens gegen ein vereinigtes Irland. Seine Argumente gewähren Einblick in die Denkweise vieler Orangemen. ,,�And be ruled from Rome? A state told what to do by priests and nuns. Sheer voodoo, Cal. Mumbo-jumbo. Ulstermen would die rather than live under the yoke of Roman Catholicism. Not an inch. It�s a good saying.` [...] �I`m serious, Cal. I would die rather than let that happen.`.5 Diese Argumentation wirkt auf den ersten Blick für den Leser geradezu lächerlich, da sie der Realität in grotesker Weise widerspricht. Die Kirche und der Vatikan haben seit der Mitte des 0. Jahrhunderts stark an Einfluss verloren, so dass niemand ernsthaft behaupten kann, dass irgendwo auf der Welt ein Staat existiert, der eine Marionette des Vatikan ist. Diese Sichtweise ist ein Überbleibsel der irischen Geschichte und zeigt die uralten Ängste der protestantischen Bevölkerungsgruppe. Die sog. Belagerungsmentalität der Protestanten, die sie als Minderheit seit der Ansiedelung ihrer Vorfahren in Irland entwickelt haben, lässt sie auch heute nicht los. So ist Cyrils Einstellung, so überkommen sie auch scheinen mag, ein bitterer Bestandteil der Gegenwart, der einer Lösung der blutigen Auseinandersetzung im Wege steht.


Dennoch ist der Vorarbeiter nicht so radikal, wie es den Anschein hat. Er fährt zwar verbal schweres Geschütz auf, doch in seinem Verhalten ist er eher gemäßigt. Zum Beispiel hat Cyril immerhin bei seiner Chefin für Cal ein gutes Wort eingelegt und selbst wenn seine zweifellos bestehenden Ressentiments kaum verschleiern kann. Er hätte es ja auch nicht zu tun brauchen. Außerdem überfällt er Cal nicht sofort mit Diskussionen über die politische Situation in Nordirland, sondern vermeidet zunächst Gespräche über Politik, die den Katholiken vor den Kopf stoßen könnten ,,[...]Cal was aware that the other man [Dunlop] was choosing things to talk about which had no connection with religion or politics. They were politely wary of each other.5 . Außerdem ist Dunlop immerhin bereit, nach dem Brandanschlag auf das Haus der Mac Cluskeys zuzugeben, dass auch von Protestanten Seite Unrecht verübt wird ,,�I`ll have to admit, Cal, there�s bad bastards on both sides.�54


Was man Cyril außerdem zu Gute halten muss, ist, dass er seinen säbelrasselnden Reden keine Taten folgen lässt. Zwar hätte er keine Probleme damit, IRA-Gefangene an die Wand zu stellen, doch wendet er selbst, soweit man aus dem Roman ersehen kann, keine Gewalt an und ist kein Mitglied einer Terrororganisation. Auch wenn er sich auf Märschen des Oranierordens wie ein stolzer Gockel 55 gebärdet, wie Marcella in ihrem Tagebuch festhält. so geht er selbst für seine Überzeugung nicht über Leichen.


Dunlop verkörpert also den ewig gestrigen Oranier, der seine Vorurteile kaum verbergen kann. Doch immerhin ist er oberflächlich freundlich zu Katholiken, was man im mörderischen Nordirland schon als Fortschritt gelten kann.


Die Nachbarn


Doch es gibt auch Protestanten, deren Freundlichkeit nicht so aufgesetzt wirkt, wie die direkten Nachbarn der Mc Cluskeys. Sie verstehen sich gut mit Cal und Shamie und würden zu ihnen halten, sollten diese aus ihrem Haus ausgewiesen werden ,,They [the Mc Cluskeys] spoke to their near neighbours affably enough but beyond that everyone else in the estate seemed threatening. The Radcliffs and the Hendersons said they would stand by the Mc Cluskeys if it ever came to an eviction.56 . Auch das Verhalten einer Nachbarsfrau nach dem Brandanschlag auf das Heim der Mc Cluskeys zeigt, dass die Nachbarn wirklich mit Cal und seinem Vater fühlen ,,A woman neighbour brought an overcoat and she made Shamie put it on, saying, �It makes you ashamed to be a Protestant.`She too was crying.57 Durch die Darstellung der Radcliffs und Hendersons verdeutlicht Mac Laverty, dass es auf beiden Seiten Menschen gibt, die sich dem menschenverachtenden Hass in Nordirland nicht unterwerfen und über die Konfessionsgrenze hinweg Mitgefühl und Wärme zeigen. Es geht also auch anders. Menschen wie die Nachbarn lassen den Leser für die geschundene Region Hoffnung schöpfen.


Die Extremisten


Diese aufkeimende Hoffnung gleich wieder zu zerstören, scheinen sich die Extremisten zur Lebensaufgabe erkoren zu haben. Sowohl auf republikanischer als auch auf unionistischer Seite gibt es Menschen, die den Einsatz von Gewalt zur Durchsetzung ihrer politischen Ziele für legitim halten.


Skeffington und Crilly


Bei den Katholiken stechen dabei Cals ,,Kollegen in der paramilitärischen Organisation, Crilly und Skeffington, besonders ins Auge. Die beiden stehen stereotypisch für zwei Typen von Extremisten. Skeffington ist ein Lehrer um die Dreißig. Er war Augenzeuge des zweiten Bloody Sunday 17 in Derry und musste miterleben, wie ein alter Mann auf offener Straße verblutete. Das Vertrauen in politische Veränderungen hat Skeffington, der damit exemplarisch für viele katholische Nordiren dieser Zeit steht, verloren. Voller Verachtung spricht er von dem gemäßigten nordirischen Politiker John Hume, dem Führer der nordirischen Sozialdemokraten, der 18 für seine Rolle im Friedensprozess den Friedensnobelpreis erhielt.


Die Konsequenzen, die Skeffington aus seinen Erfahrungen gezogen hat, machen ihn zu einem gefährlichen Terroristen. Der junge Mann ist der Kopf hinter den Aktionen der paramilitärischen Gruppe und von kühlem, berechnendem Fanatismus. Er ist überzeugt von der Notwendigkeit seines Handelns. Deshalb hat er auch keine Probleme damit, Morde oder andere Verbrechen anzuordnen, die er mit perfider Logik rechtfertigt, welcher sich Cal nur schwer entziehen kann ,,`The problem with this kind of thing [Terrorakte der Gruppierung; Anmerkung der Verfasserin] is that people get hurt.`Skeffington leaned forward. �But compared with conventional war the numbers a small. I know that sounds callous but it�s true. In Cyprus the dead hardly ran to three figures. That�s cheap for freedom.`�I have no stomach for it,`said Cal. [...] �Do you think any of us have?` Skeffington stared at him. �Anybody who enjoyed this kind of thing would have to be sick.But it has to be done - by somebody. Because we have committed ourselves, Cahal, it is our responsibility. We have to make the sacrifices...`[...] �You have to steel yourself, Cahal. Think of the issues, not the people. Think of an Ireland free of the Brits. Would we ever achieve it through the politicians ?`58 Dieses Beispiel zeigt deutlich Skeffingtons ,,pragmatische Grausamkeit. Er rechnet die Opferzahlen einfach gegen die Freiheit auf. Ein weiteres Beispiel bringt Skeffingtons Einstellung exakt auf den Punkt. Er vergleicht den Terrorismus in unglaublichem Zynismus mit einem quietschenden Stuhl. Dieses Quietschen wird die Briten irgendwann einmal so ärgern, dass sie sich einen anderen Stuhl als Nordirland suchen werden, d.h. das Land verlassen. Durch Skeffington gewährt sich dem Leser ein Blick in die Denkweise eines völlig fanatisierten Drahtziehers, der Menschenleben einer zweifelhaften Freiheit opfert. Skeffington, der Denker im Hintergrund, ist der skrupellose Drahtzieher,der sich die Hände nicht selber schmutzig macht.


Das ist auch gar nicht nötig, denn dafür hat er ja Crilly. Cals Ex-Klassenkamerad ist der Mann fürs Grobe, der Henker. Menschen zu quälen und zu töten, bereitet ihm keine Bauchschmerzen, sondern eher Freude, wie seine aufgeregte Schilderung der Bestrafung des Jungen, der Skeffingtons alten Herrn überfahren hat, zeigt. Mit dem Bolzenschussgerät des Schlachthofs zertrümmerte Crilly ihm die Kniescheiben - knee-capping wie diese Methode in Nordirland lapidar genannt wird ,,�I`ve never done a knee-capping, but, I says,I`ll have a go. [...] Wallop, wallop. Both knees he wanted, and your man on the ground squealing like a stuck pig with Skeffington sitting on his head.`5 Dass Crilly ein wenig sadistisch ist, zeigt sich, als er und Cal ein off-licence überfallen. Crilly weidet sich an der Angst seiner Opfer und Cal hat Angst, dass er jemanden verletzt. ,,�What did you do to those women?`[Cal asked.] �I told them to lie on the floor. [...] They were shaking in their fuckin`high-heel shoes [...]` He [Crilly] was laughing [...].60 Für seine Rolle in der Gruppe wird Crilly von Cal gefürchtet und von Skeffington verachtet, der ihn als Werkzeug betrachtet ,,�There are not many aspects of our culture which interest Mr Crilly. But he`s a useful man. [...] If you`ve a burst pipe you send for a plumber. If you have a war on your hands you send for the Mr Crillys of this world.`[Skeffington said.] 61


Protestantische Extremisten - die Brandstifter


Protestantische Extremisten lernt man im Roman nur aus der Entfernung kennen. Auf ihre individuelle Haltung kann man deshalb nur spekulieren. Ihre Identität bleibt geheim. Sie haben kein Gesicht, nur die Bedrohung, die von ihnen ausgeht, ist allgegenwärtig. Dies verdeutlicht dem Leser die ständige Gefahr, in der die Mc Cluskeys schweben. Die Folgen solch permanenter Bedrohung werden im Roman in Beispielen klar. Cal schreckt zusammen, wenn er draußen ein Geräusch hört, obwohl es nur der Briefträger ist. Seine Vorsicht geht sogar so weit, dass er es sich zweimal überlegt, ob er das Licht einschalten soll. Durch solche Beispiele kann sich der Leser einfühlen, wieviel Kraft es kosten muss, mit der alltäglichen, zermürbenden Angst in Nordirland fertig zu werden.


Durch die Darstellung der vielen verschiedenen Personen mit ihren unterschiedlichen Erfahrungen und Meinungen zum Nordirlandkonflikt vermeidet der Autor einseitige Schilderungen und verdeutlicht die Vielschichtigkeit und Kompexität des Problems. So bietet er dem Leser die Möglichkeit, sich selbst ein Urteil zu bilden.


Der Nordirlandkonflikt im Spiegel der Beziehung Cal - Marcella


Ein Großteil des Romans beschäftigt sich mit der Beziehung zwischen Cal und Marcella. Auch die Schilderung der Liebesbeziehung nutzt der Autor, um die nordirische Problematik zu verdeutlichen, da sie geradezu symbolisch steht für das Dilemma der geschundenen Provinz.


Die Begegnung zwischen Marcella und Cal wird von Anfang an durch eine Tat aus der Vergangenheit überschattet. Die Mittäterschaft des jungen Mannes beim Mord am Ehemann der Geliebten steht immer als unüberwindbares Hindernis zwischen dem Paar.Weder kann Cal die Tat ungeschehen machen, noch kann er die Erinnerung daran abschütteln oder verdrängen. Immerzu muss er an sein Verbrechen denken ,,His sin clawed at him, demanding attention. He fought it for as long as he could but there was little to distract him except the cold.6 So dominiert die Vergangenheit sein Denken. Ebenso bestimmt sie Cals Zukunft, da sie ein Leben an Marcellas Seite, unmöglich macht. Schließlich verliert er sogar seine Freiheit, weil ihn seine Vergangenheit einholt. Die Macht der Vergangenheit über Gegenwart und Zukunft ist auch charakteristisch für den Nordirlandkonflikt, da ,,It�s [Irland] only concerned with the past and the present. The future has ceased to exist for it.6 Ein eindeutiger Beleg dafür, welchen Einfluss längst vergangene Ereignisse auch heute noch haben, sind die alljährlich stattfindenden Oraniermärsche. Der Oranierorden feiert so den Sieg des Protestanten Willhelm von Oranien über den Katholiken James II in der Battle of the Boyne 160. Da die Märsche oft durch katholische Viertel führen, kommt es immer wieder zu blutigen Zusammenstößen, wenn Katholiken versuchen, die Oranier aus ihrer Wohngegend herauszuhalten. Eine längst vergangene und wohl normalerweise längst vergessenen Schlacht sorgt also auch noch heute für erhitzte Gemüter und blutige Köpfe. Die Vergangenheit steht einer hoffnungsvollen Zukunft im Weg - wie auch bei Cal und Marcella.


Die Beziehung zwischen Cal und Marcella versinnbildlicht zudem die Zerrissenheit Nordirlands.In seiner Liebe zu Marcella ist Cal innerlich gespalten. Einerseits fühlt er sich stark zu ihr hingezogen,doch seine Schuld distanziert ihn gleichzeitig von ihr. Er fühlt sich, als läge ein Universum zwischen ihnen. Dennoch versucht er dieses Universum zu überwinden.


Auch ist er hin- und hergerissen, ihr seine Schuld zu beichten. Alles in ihm sehnt sich danach, Verzeihung von Marcella zu erlangen, doch die Angst vor ihrer Reaktion verhindert ein Geständnis. Wie sehr Cal mit dem Zwiespalt in sich kämpft, wird an einem Beispiel besonders deutlich ,,The more he loved her, the more friendly he became with her, the more afraid he was that he would telll her what he had done. It was the one thing he wanted to talk to her about, to have her console him. He wanted to share his guilt with the person he had wronged. Tocommune with her and be forgiven. He opened his mouth to speak and she waited, listening with raised eyebrows. Cal paused. �I would like - another drink,` he said.64 Cal möchte ihr alles sagen und doch wieder nicht. Er ist innerlich gespalten - wie Nordirland, das in zwei sich bekriegende Hälften zerrissen ist.


Ein weiterer Aspekt, der sowohl im Nordirlandkonflikt als auch in der Liebesgeschichte von großer Bedeutung ist, ist die Ausweglosigkeit, die den Nordiren die Hoffnung auf Frieden und Cal die Hoffnung auf ein Leben mit Marcella nimmt. Für das Paar gibt es keine Lösung. Cal steht in einer Sackgasse. Würde Cal die Wahrheit sagen, wäre mit Sicherheit alles zerstört, denn Marcella würde mit dem Komplizen des Mörders ihres Mannes nie zusammenleben wollen. Doch es ihr zu verheimlichen, quält Cal entsetzlich. Es gibt also werder auf die eine noch auf die andere Weise eine Zukunft für die Liebe. Wie man es auch dreht und wendet,die Situation ist ausweg- und hoffnungslos.


Wie auch in Nordirland, wo sich trotz enormer politischer Anstrengungen Katholiken und Protestanten noch immer in unversöhnlichem Hass gegenüber stehen. Jüngstes Opfer des scheinbar niemals enden wollenden Hasses ist ein Belfaster Briefträger, der von loyalistischen Extremisten im Januar dieses Jahres erschossen wurde. Solche Anschläge scheinen denpolitischen Friedensprozess ad absurdum zu führen und machen auf grausame Art und Weise deutlich, dass es auch heute noch keine Lösung gibt.


Mittel der Gestaltung


Den desillusionierenden Eindruck, den der Roman beim Leser hinterlässt, verstärkt Mac Laverty geschickt durch einige Gestaltungsmittel.


Motive


Durch Bilder und Motive gelingt es Mac Laverty, die im Roman vorherrschende düstere Atmosphäre zu verdichten.


Fernsehnachrichten, die der Autor in die Alltagsbeschreibung mit einbaut, verdeutlichen das Grauen des Konflikts. Sie zeigen, wie ernst die Lage im ganzen Land ist. Mit ihren unbewegten täglichen Berichten von Mord und Totschlag fungieren sie als ,,Stimmungsbarometer der Unruhen im Restland und zeigen, wie sehr die Gewalt schon zum täglichen Leben gehört ,,Thenews came on...Two hooded bodies had been found at the outskirts of Belfast; bombs had gone off in Strabane and Derry and Newry but no one had been hurt; there was another rise in coal prices;and finally there was the elephant in Belle Vue Zoo that had to have his teeth filed.65


Bereits im ersten Kapitel verbreitet der Autor eine düstere Stimmung. Cal besucht seinen Vater ausgerechnet im Schlachthof. Es stinkt ekelerregend, man hört das Krachen der Bolzenschussgeräte und sieht die Tiere auf ihrem Weg zur Schlachtbank. ,,The humane killer cracked again and Cal saw the killing pen tip over and tumble a beast to the floor, its leg stiff up to the ceiling. It was immedeatly winched up by one of the hind shanks and its throat cut.66 Mit der unbewegten Schilderung solch blutiger Szenen löst der Autor im Leser eine tiefe Beklemmung aus und stimmt ihn quasi von der ersten Seite an auf die folgenden Grausamkeiten ein.


Der obskure Prediger, der mit seinem klapprigen Fahrrad durch die Gegend fährt ,,nailing tracts made from tin lids to trees and telegraph-poles.67 tritt auch im Schlachthof das erste Mal auf. Schon durch sein Aussehen löst er Unbehagen aus. Er ist bleich, hat ,,the Adam�s apple of a vulture68 . Dieses Unbehagen wandelt sich in Verstörung um, als der Leser erfährt, dass der Mann als Arznei gegen seine Blutarmut das Blut der frisch geschlachteten Tiere trinkt. Auf diese Weise wird von Beginn an eine Verbindung zwischen Religion und Blut und Tod hergestellt. Dadurch wird die nordirische Problematik indirekt bewusst gemacht.


Auch das weitere Auftreten des Predigers im Verlaufe der Handlung wirkt unheimlich. Die Plakate, die er überall in der Gegend an Bäume nagelt, erscheinen entweder höhnisch oder als düstere Vorausdeutungen. Das Bibelzitat ,,�The Wages of Sin is Death.` 6 muss auf den schweren Sünder Cal wie eine Drohung wirken.


In einem Moment, in dem Cal die grausame Realität des Nordirlandkonflikts besonders bewusst wird - er findet die blutigen Überreste einer Kuh, die von einer Landmine zerfetzt wurde, verkündet das Plakat salbungsvoll ,,The Kingdom of God is within You.70- was in dieser Situation einfach zynisch wirkt.


Auch kurz vor seiner Verhaftung trifft Cal den Prediger wieder, der sich diesmal wie ein Untergangsapostel gebärdet. Er predigt von den Passanten unbeachtet auf der Straße. ,,Repent ye; for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand71, steht auf seiner Schürze, er krakeelt, ,,Without the shedding of blood there can be no forgiveness.7 Diesen letzten Satz kann man nur als bösartigen Hohn empfinden. In Nordirland, wie auch im Roman selbst, beweist es sich schließlich, dass Blutvergießen keine Lösung ist, geschweige denn zu Vergebung führt.


Mit der Figur des vermutlich verrückten Predigers verdeutlicht der Autor also sehr gut den absurden Irrsinn der Situation in Nordirland.


Ein weiteres Beispiel dafür, wie es dem Autor gelingt, im Leser ein beklemmendes Gefühl wach zu rufen, ist die Schilderung von Grünewalds Gemälde von der Kreuzigung Jesu. Marcella schildert Cal, welch bleibenden Eindruck das Bild auf sie als Kind gemacht hat ,,`It was a painting. And it was the first thing like that which had any effect on me. It was by a man called Grünewald [...] I stood there and stared at it for so long the teachers lost me and had to come back for me. The pain in it is terrible. Not like our Walt Disney mural.�7 Später hat Cal Gelegenheit, sich selbst ein Urteil zu bilden, denn er schenkt Marcella zu Weihnachten ein Taschenbuch über Grünewald, in dem auch die Kreuzigungsszene abgebildet ist ,,The weight of the Christ figure bent the cross down like a bow; the hands were cupped to heaven like nailed starfish; the body with ist taut ribcage was pulled to the shape of an egg-timer by the weight of the lower body; the flesh was diseased with sores from the knotted scourges, the mouth open and gasping for breath. 74Bei dem hier beschriebenen Bild handelt es sich um die Mitteltafel des sog. Isenheimer Altars, des wohl berühmtesten Werks Grünewalds. Im Du Mont Kunstführer ist darüber zu lesen ,,In keinem anderen Werk dieser Zeit haben Grausamkeit und Leid, Verzweiflung und Hingabe einen ergreifenderen Ausdruck gefunden als in der Kreuzigung Christi des Isenheimer Altars um 151-15 von Mathis Nithart Gothart, genannt Grünewald (um 1475 - 158). Der Leichnam Christi hängt in übermenschlicher Größe vor dem Dunkel einer nicht endenden Nacht, die die Erde als düstere Stätte des Todes erscheinen lässt, der im Opfer des Menschensohnes seinen höchsten Triumph feiert. Mit grauenhafter Deutlichkeit werden die schwärenden Wunden der Geißelhiebe gezeigt und das unsägliche Leid in dem herabgesunkenem Kopf mit der Dornenkrone, in dem in Todeskrampf verzerrten Füßen und Händen. Die Wirklichkeitstreue der Schilderung erreicht einen Grad, wo sie ins Unheimliche umschlägt [...]75. Das Bild wirkt auf den Betrachter eindeutig verstörend, was Mac Laverty durch die genaue Schilderung auch auf den Leser überträgt. Durch das ungeheure Leid, das dieses Werk ausdrückt, entsteht eine Atmosphäre des Unheils und der Gewalt. Grünewalds Altarbild von der Kreuzigung Christi steht symbolisch für die Situation in der geschundenen Region, in der das Leid, das Grünewald so klar ausdrückt, auch heute noch gegenwärtig ist.


Sprachliche Mittel


Neben gestalterischen Mitteln verstärken auch sprachliche Mittel die Wirkung des Romans.


Mac Laverty ist ein vielgerühmter Kurzgeschichtenautor, der seine Schriftstellerkarriere mit dem Verfassen von Kurzgeschichten begann. Dies hat seinen Schreibstil sehr geprägt. Auch Cal ähnelt auf Grund von Sprache und Aufbau einer Kurzgeschichte. Dies hat auch der Kritiker Terence de Vere White bemerkt, den der Roman als echte Kurzgeschichte noch mehr beeindruckt hätte ,,This novel could have been a short story; its impact would have been even stronger.76 Neben dem unmittelbaren Beginn, der knappen Darstellung und dem offenen Schluss verfügt der Roman über einen Wendepunkt in der Handlung - alles Elemente einer Kurzgeschichte, die zu der beklemmenden Authentizität des Romans beitragen.


Auch die nüchterne, ungeschminkte Sprache,die an bekannte Kurzgeschichtenautoren erinnert wie z.B. Hemingway, sticht sofort ins Auge,,Die Sprache bleibt einfach, unprätentiös, allen schmückenden oder emotionalisierenden Adjektiven misstrauend [...]77. Immer sachlich und neutral beschreibt der Autor die Vorgänge. Auch bei der Erzählung grausamer Szenen (wie z.B. der oben erwähnten Schlachthausszene) bleibt eine Distanz und Objektivität erhalten, die nach H.G Pflaum die Bannkraft des Romans noch verstärkt. In einem Artikel in der SZ 185 schreibt der Kritiker ,,Je nüchterner er [der Autor] davon berichtet, desto intensiver wird die emotionale Qualität seiner Sprache; auch darauf beruht der Reiz dieser Erzählungen78.


Ein Mittel, durch das der Autor seinen Figuren Leben einhaucht, ist der häufige Einsatz der wörtlichen Rede.Sie bietet die Möglichkeit, die Unterschiede zwischen den Figuren zu unterstreichen und ihnen durch ihre unterschiedliche Ausdrucksweise persönliche Konturen und Züge zu verleihen. Bestes Beispiel hierfür sind Crilly und Marcella Mac Laverty hat die beiden Charaktere grundverschieden angelegt Marcella, die intellektuelle, liberale Kunstliebhaberin, und Crilly, der sadistische ,,bully7. Dieser charakterliche und intellektuelle Unterschied drückt sich auch in der Sprechweise der beiden aus. Crilly redet in einfachen Sätzen, benutzt umgangssprachliche Ausdrücke und flucht auch öfter derb, z.B. tituliert er Robert Morton als ,,big fucker80. Marcella dagegen drückt sich gewählt aus. Sie redet meist nach der Schrift, Schimpfwörter kommen ihr nie über die Lippen. Die Unterschiede zwischen den Charakteren werden bereits durch die Sprachkompetenz deutlich.


Das Benutzen der Umgangssprache hat noch einen Nebeneffekt. Die Arbeiter Cal, Shamie, Crilly und Cyril sprechen alle kein korrektes Englisch, sondern ,,wie ihnen der Schnabel gewachsen ist - wie man in nordirischen Arbeitervierteln eben spricht einfach, derb, und nicht immer salonfähig. Bester Beweis sind die mannigfaltigen Flüche und Schimpfnamen, die den Figuren im Laufe der Handlung entschlüpfen. Ob ,,arselicker81, ,,fucker8 oder (schon fast dezent) ,,crawler8 - die feine englische Art ist das zwar nicht, doch lässt diese Sprache die Personen wesentlich authentischer und somit glaubwürdiger erscheinen.





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