Tuesday, January 17, 2012

traffic accidents

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Drowsiness and lack of alertness while driving are major causes of traffic accidents. An attention support system that detects periods of inattention would greatly improve safety on the roads.

Drunk drivers

Cellphone distractions

Driving with headlights on full

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A Survey of Public Education Literature regarding Driver Sleepiness

D. Flatley and L.A. Reyner of Loughborough University Sleep Research Centre, write that From analyses of various road accidents in the UK (Road Audits) we have found that about 0% of road traffic accidents on motorways and other major trunk roads are caused by driver sleepiness. Drivers in these sleep related vehicle accidents (SRVAs) are more likely to sustain fatal or serious injuries than in road traffic accidents as a whole. Maycock (16), in his postal questionnaire survey of accidents involving male drivers, and the relationship between these accidents and daytime sleepiness, found that % of respondents had felt close to falling asleep at the wheel over a period of 1 months.

Slippery roads

Fog-lack of visibility

Car defects

There are lots of traffic accidents in the world.Generally, negligence causes traffic accidents.For instance, if you drink an alcohol before driving it will probably causes an accident.We mustnt drink before driving.

We can give an example to negligence;racing on main road.Its very very dangerous.Drivers who drink and race on the main road must be fined.I think it will prevent accidents.

All drivers must be educated to be careful when theyre driving.....

Frequency Percentage Mean values

Factor Mild In. Severe Killed

Infraction of a traffic law or regulation 6.111 5,4% 0,6 0,4 0,0

Distraction 1.45 18,0% 1,00 0,41 0,05

Improper speed 14.68 1,4% 1,06 0,57 0,08

No specific opinion 5.65 4,8% 0,0 0,4 0,04

Another factor 4.748 4,0% 0,88 0,40 0,05

Alcohol or drugs .60 ,% 1,18 0,6 0,0

Illness, fatigue or sleep .04 1,% 0,7 0,74 0,17

Inexperienced driver 1.66 1,4% 1,04 0,47 0,04

Road condition 1.67 1,% 1,00 0,5 0,0

Weather condition 1 0,8% 1,14 0,5 0,10

Mechanical fault 550 0,5% 1,1 0,51 0,07

Deficient vehicle state 4 0,% 1,07 0,5 0,0

Defective signals 01 0,% 1,07 0,47 0,0

Work zone on road 17 0,% 1,15 0,51 0,05

Total 118.67 100,0% 0,8 0,40 0,04

A comprehensive study of road safety (Treat et al., 177) found that human error was the sole cause in 57% of all accidents and was a contributing factor in over 0%. In contrast, only .4% were due solely to mechanical fault and only 4.7% were caused only by environmental factors.

People driving down a highway are bombarded with a steady flow of information. Most of the information is visual input, the road itself, other vehicles, pedestrians, signs, the passing scenery, etc. Moreover, the driver may be processing other information sources such as auditory input (listening to the radio, talking on a cell phone, carrying on a conversation with another passenger), or internal input (remembering directions or planning what to make for dinner).

If the visual information flow is low, there may be enough mental resource to carry on all tasks simultaneously. But attentional demands may exceed supply when

the flow becomes a torrent (driving fast)

the information is low quality (poor visibility)

resources must be focussed on a particular subset of information (a car close ahead)

the drivers capacity is lowered by age, drugs, alcohol or fatigue.

The first is perceptual error. Sometimes critical information was below the threshold for seeing - the light was too dim, the driver was blinded by glare, or the pedestrians clothes had low contrast. In other cases, the driver made a perceptual misjudgment (a curves radius or another cars speed or distance). The second, and far more common cause, is that the critical information was detectable but that the driver failed to attend/notice because his mental resources were focussed elsewhere. Often times, a driver will claim that s/he did not see a plainly visible pedestrian or car.

Certainly speed is a factor in accidents. Many accidents happen simply because the driver is going too fast. City streets usually have speed limits of less than 5 miles per hour, and often you will see posted limits as low as 5 or 10 miles per hour. Speed limits are carefully selected to minimize the chances of accidents. When traffic is heavy, there just isnt very much distance between you and the next vehicle to stop. The slower youre going, the less distance it will take to stop. By going slowly, you will also be able to observe your surroundings more easily, taking note of cyclists, pedestrians, and other vehicles. Observing the speed limit is one sure way to reduce your chance of an accident. On rainy, foggy, or snowy days keep your speed even lower.

Perhaps the main cause of accidents in traffic is a simple matter of not paying attention. In traffic, it is easy to become distracted, frustrated, and annoyed. Any of these can cause you to pay less attention than you should, often resulting in rear-end collisions when the vehicle in front of you stops. Running stop lights and stop signs is also a possibility if you are not paying attention.

Fatigue is also a contributor to traffic accidents. After a long days work, or perhaps a morning when you didnt rest well the night before, you are likely to feel tired. Feeling tired causes you to become distracted easily and also slows your reflexes. Dont take chances driving when you feel too tired to be safe. If fatigue is a frequent problem, see your doctor. For occasional fatigue, combat it with adequate rest, nutrition, and exercise.

To drive safely in traffic you must keep your speed down, pay attention, and avoid driving when you are tired. Many accidents and injuries could be prevented by following these precautions. Next time youre in traffic, remember these things and keep yourself safe!

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