Tuesday, January 31, 2012

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

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The ancient Romans are famous for many things. One thing is their adaptation and development of architecture. From the Etruscans and early tribes the Romans found most of their basic architectural skills. From the Greeks some components of Roman architecture were adapted. Which gives some early Roman architecture some characteristics of oriental architecture because of Greek contact with the Orient. The heart of Roman architecture was the Roman forum, which was really being constructed under the rule of Octavian (Augustus) Caesar. As time progressed the Roman architecture went into a stage of Greek like buildings. After this Roman architecture as we know it today was starting to take form.


Etruscan architecture was really the beginning of Roman architecture. For example in Etruscan tombs people would find many types of architectural traits found in many Roman buildings. Like the fact they had vaulted entrances. Some cities had an influence, such as the fortified city of Norba. After this Greece started to gain control in Italy that greatly affected the Roman architecture of this time but not as much as Etruscan does in the future. When the Greeks came in Rome was building their new buildings in the classic Greek vaulted construction with Doric style columns. The start of this was in 17 B.C., it started with the planing of the Temple to Fortuna Virilis. This was completed in approximately 100 B.C. Then shortly after the completion of the Tabularium built in the time of Sulla. In this period under the dictator Sulla, Hellenistic architecture flourished in Rome, with the buildings Lindos, Cos, the acropolis at Pergamon, Fortuna at Praeneste, the sanctuary of Hercules Victor at Tibur, and the temple of Jupiter Anxur at Terracina. Though all these buildings were noticeably Hellenistic, they retained the Romans own unique architectural style. Such as the cylindrical shape of Forum Boarium, this was an original shape for the Romans along with the roof.


Eventually the Hellenistic architecture was being pushed out by Romanization. When Rome gained leadership over Neighboring countries and was starting to unite the cities, in about 00 B.C. Rome started to gain its own unique architectural culture. When Rome was expanding they build grids of roads, and with this advance Rome had a much greater ability to build massive projects. Such as Octavian (Augustus) Caesars Forum, aqueducts, temples, jetties, safe ports, bridges, marsh drainage and the first truly planned cities. These cities were truly planned to certain specifications and were built and optimized for certain purposes.


After the Hellenistic period was nearing an end in Rome Octavian (Augustus) Caesar took control of Rome and started to start some major development programs. A tribute to the god of Mars called the Ultor for the death of Octavian (Augustus) Caesars father who was assassinated, was the first That later became the Forum of Augustus was to have the Ultor, an Other temple dedicated to Julius Caesar called the Cella, and a courtyard. The Forum of Augustus was built across from Julius Caesars Forum on a piece of land that measured one hectare. The Forum of Augustus was designed in a symmetrical style. Other achievements of Augustus were to build one of the earliest aqueducts at Minturnae was one of the first construction projects to use arcs. This structure was made completely of stones with a reticulated bond. Most would figure Caesar would have a great home because he was very absorbed in to architectural projects. On the Contrary Caesars home was a simple, it was almost small compared with other emperors homes. Its only features that were appealing were the location and the wall paintings. Of course when he became emperor it was enlarged but not by much. Under Caesars reign as emperor Agrippa built the first Pantheon in Caesars honor. The Pantheon as we know it, was a replacement of Caesars built century and a half later by Hadrian.


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Aqueducts were one of Romes new devices described as indispensable in urban life.(Stierlin 48) The aqueducts were one of Romes many revolutionary devices. In these science, architecture and art were combined to bring the cities the water they need to survive.


Another revolution is the Roman network of roads. The Romans were the first civilization to make well-designed roads. Around the time of Augustus the major roads were constructed to keep the incredibly large empire linked so it would not fall. The Romans added a number of things to the basic idea of roads, such as archways, city streets, and arch bridges. This greatly increased the ability to build because of the way roads were laid out.


One of the most famous Roman projects is the Flavian Amphitheater in Rome. Commonly known as the Colosseum this massive stadium had seating for about 50,000 people, a feat that is amazing considering the tools used for construction. Construction started in 6 AD by Vespasian, and was finished in 80 AD when his son Titus inaugurated it. On the outside the building was made of travertine, a creamy colored carbonate material. (Michael Raczynski)On the inside it was made of tufa, and the ramping were made of concrete. The quality and advanced designs were easily viewed as superior because it has lasted so many years, through earthquakes and wars.





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Monday, January 30, 2012

My Future Career

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When I was young, people asked that what I wanted to be when I grew up? I said that I wanted to become a pediatrician. Everyone thought that I would turn out to be a bright young lady, since I had that thought on my mind. As I grew older, I have done some research about my major, and my parents tell me about how I should major in pharmacy, instead of being a doctor. They have influenced my mind, so I have decided to major in pharmacy. My reasons are that I wanted to know, for sure, that I could survive by myself, wanted to make something out of myself, and I am interested in the field.


My family has had a big impact on my life. Whatever they recommend, I would considered it. But for some reason, when I planned to become a pediatrician, they objected. It started out when I was in junior high; I had my eye on being a pediatrician. I had done all types of research about the field I wanted to major in; when one day, my parents asked me what I really wanted to be. I said that I wanted to be a pediatrician. Then they began to give me all different types of excuses as to why I should reconsider it. My parents said that they wanted to see me graduate out of college. My oldest sister kept on informing me that doctors get sued everyday. My older sister was fine with whatever I wanted to do. I figured out what my major will be, pharmacy, and all I have left to depend on is my ability to make it happen.


Secondly, I wanted to show my family that I could make it through college and life. I do not want them, or anyone, to worry about me. For one thing, I do not want to be on their “stress” list. I had a rough life and wanted to show that people’s doubts are none of my concerns. But I really wanted to be successful in what I do, because I have a bright mind to succeed. I do not have much to offer to anyone but my intelligence, and I have planned to use it and make something out of myself. If I made it through my difficulties, then I know that I can make it through college. If there are any challenges for me, out there, then I am waiting for them.


Finally, I was interested in the field because I like math and science. Either way, I would be in the medical field, no matter what.


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But my mind was set on it, and I do not intend to change my mind about it. I am a determined person; what I have decided will not change.


In conclusion, if I have set my mind to something, then I stay with it. If I keep on changing my mind, then I will be under the “undecided” individual.





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WWII

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World War II had a very large impact on the U.S. Besides costing the U.S. an unthinkable amount of money, many young men?s lives were lost. Another impact the war had was that it made the U.S. the most powerful country in the world. Britain then had to pass responsibility of protecting the free world to the U.S. The war also had a huge impact on the U.S. socially. It allowed women to enter the work force with a wider range of jobs. It also allowed the GI bill to pass. This allowed veterans to get loans for homes and businesses and also enabled young men to get college education. America now becomes the most educated society as opposed to Britain.


was in the navy just before and just after World War II ended. Although he never saw combat in the war, I found that interviewing him was very interesting. Right after he graduated high school in 14, he entered the Navy V1 Officer Program. In March of 145 after two years of the naval training program, he was commissioned as a naval officer. He was then sent to Advance Lance Officer Program in Miami for three months. After that, he left from San Francisco on a troop transporting ship. After briefly stopping at Pearl Harbor for fuel and supplies, he was sent to Eniwetek, an island southeast of Japan in the Marshall Islands. He was here when the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6th, 145. The bomb dropped by the V Super Fortress Bomber killed 80,000 troops and civilians in a community with a population of only 50,000. The bomb destroyed two thirds of all the buildings in Hiroshima. Then on August th, the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. If it wouldn?t had been for the dropping of the atomic bombs and the surrender of Japan, my grandpa and other troops would have bombarded Japan. The bombing of Japan may have actually saved many lives, because with the bombardment of Japan the death tolls could have been very high. After the bombs had been dropped, he boarded a destroyer ship to take him to Tokyo Bay. At Tokyo Bay, he then boarded the U.S.S. Boston. He left on this ship just before the peace treaty was signed on the U.S.S. Missouri that was harbored near the U.S.S. Boston.


After the war, he then spent several months cruising around various ports in Japan confiscating weapons and artillery. They would then be destroyed be burning them or just shooting them off. He had stopped by Hiroshima, where the first bomb hit. There the men went through the rubbish. He described everything as being flattened and everyone having an eerie feeling. He also stopped in Nagasaki, where the second bomb hit. He told me that the only thing that remained was some of the bases to buildings. After all of that, he still had five months left in the Navy. So he was transferred to the LST 10 ship in Shanghai, China. There, he brought Chinese troops from Manchuria, in northern China, back to Shaghai. They also took Japanese troops back to Japan. It surprised me to hear that the Japanese troops were very polite to the U.S. Navy troops, while the Chinese troops were sometimes arrogant. After that, he was promoted to Lieutenant JG (junior grade). Finally in early 146, the LST ship left China to the Puget Sound in Seattle. Because of his experience on the ship he was called to be the skipper onboard and he was also the navigation officer.


said that most of the men would write back home to their families about once a week and it would usually take about or weeks to get home. When I asked my grandpa if the men were scared of going to war, he said that most of the men were not worried for their lives. This surprised me a lot. The U.S.S. Boston was like a town he said. There were ,000 men on board. He slept in the officer quarters with other officers. On the Boston there was even a barbershop and a soda shop. He was the officer of the look out division. In this division, they man the gun turrets and lookout for enemy planes. The LST 10 ship only had about 00 men on board and it had cramp quarters. He did mention though that the food on the ship was great. I had no idea that my grandpa had been through so many experiences when he was in the navy. I found interviewing him to be fun and interesting.


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Sunday, January 29, 2012

Religious freedom

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Over the history of mankind there have been relatively few who have truly enjoyed religious freedom. Though we see definite signs of increased limitations being put on traditional religious organizations today, we here in America enjoy freedom far beyond that enjoyed by the generations before us and most of our contemporaries around the world. We take our freedoms for granted just as we take fresh air until we are deprived of it. It seems to be a fact of human nature that it is only in its absence that a particular freedom is most valued.


Let us briefly review a little history of religious freedom in Europe prior to the settling of America.


The first major breakthrough came about 1450 with Johann Gutenberg’s invention of removable type and the printing press. Not until Gutenberg’s invention was the mass production of the printed word possible. Books prior to that time were copied by hand, and a large library of even a wealthy family might be ten books or less. It is estimated that within 50 years of Gutenberg’s invention 0,000,000 books were printed.


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But with the printing press came the opportunity for rapid spreading of information, especially copies of the scriptures, which up until that time, were the exclusive possession of the Church and were kept under strict control. It was understood that a monopoly on the scriptures gave those in power the ability to manage the news to the people and thereby control their thinking. The closely aligned political and ecclesiastical powers of the day combined and were soon doing what they could to make it illegal to own a Bible.


The Gutenberg Bible was initially printed in Latin for the Catholic Church. Various scholars began making new translations and even dared to translate scripture into the native tongue of the people. For two hundred years, governments imprisoned and even executed those who translated, printed, or possessed illegal scriptures.


To English speaking people, the most notable was William Tyndale. He was the first to translate portions of the Bible into English while in exile, and his last wish before being executed by strangulation in 156 was that the king’s eyes would be opened that the people might have the Bible. Within just a few years the political climate in England began to change, and Miles Coverdale printed the first complete English Bible using much of Tyndale’s work. It had to be printed overseas and shipped to England. Six thousand copies were smuggled into the country. Those who owned them were at risk of severe punishments, but the word was spreading. And it became politically opportune to authorize an official Bible under the authority of the king. After delays and aborted attempts, the King James Bible was published in 1611 and was the first printed-in-England Bible free to circulate among the people. It was not immediately popular, as the Geneva Bible had already been spread widely among the people.


When the American colonies became populated, the king forbade them from printing their own copies of an English translation. They had to be imported from England.


The first American Bible to be printed in the English language was printed in 1776, only after the American colonies had declared their independence.


This is only part of the story of the quest for religious freedom. As you know, the Pilgrims and other groups came to this country seeking the freedom to practice their faith which did not fully adhere to the established churches of the day. These people, often out of a sense of desperation to preserve the purity of their faith and the integrity of their community, immediately practiced intolerance of other faiths. The concept of religious freedom was not yet mature, but over the follow century and a half, recognition of the value of religious liberty increased. And colony by colony, more liberal views were enacted into law.


Just days before our declaring independence from England, Virginia adopted a bill of rights which included these words


...All Men are equally entitled to the free exercise of Religion, according to the Dictates of Conscience; and that it is the mutual Duty of all to practice Christian Forbearance, Love, and Charity towards each other.


I do not have time today to discuss this in detail, but it is clear that the early settlers and the Founders viewed this nation as being founded for a Christian purpose but were also coming to the realization that for that purpose to prosper full religious freedom was necessary. Even so, as we became a nation in 1776, there still remained established churches in various colonies and in some places there were laws restricting public offices to only those who professed a faith in Jesus Christ.





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women in war

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I would certainly have to agree when it’s said that women during Elizabethan England didn’t have much control of their lives. Most of the women during such times were under control or live on other peoples orders and the rules of community or country. They have no control of their lives as decisions are made mostly by the one that is from a higher rank or more powerful and even parents.





Let’s just take a look at the nurse who works for Viola’s family. I would have to say that the nurse doesnt actually have a life of her own. She didn’t have the choice to choose the career that she wants as she came from the lower class. She had no choice but to spent her life working as a nursemaid to serve and take good care of her masters daughter, Viola. She was given no chance to make a choice of her own but to obey every single word the master or even Viola said. What was worse was that the nurse also doesnt get to choose who to love. She couldnt marry an actor or politician or just anyone from the higher rank because she is from the lower rank and the society forbids her from doing so. She had to live her life the way the master or the society wants her to.





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What about Viola? Things aren’t much of a difference to her when it comes to making decisions about her life despite the fact that she came from a wealthy family. Even though she grows up in a rich and high rank family, her life is under the control of her parents and she has to follow each and every rule of her family and the country. She likes acting but she isnt allowed to do so as this will go against the rule of the theater, which forbids women from taking part and playing roles in the theater. Because of the existence of such rules, she had to dress up as a man and disguise herself as Thomas Kent in order to get the role in the Romeo and Juliet play. She has to sneak out every time when she wants to go to the theater for rehearsal with the help of the nurse. She didn’t have much of a choice either even when it comes to her marriage. Violas father had literally sold her to Wessex who gains fortune in return for the fame that the marriage between Viola and Wessex would promise to bring to the family and the coming generation. Viola couldn’t object even when she doesn’t have any love for the man that she was going to marry because the parents had already make the decision.





Viola didn’t have the freedom to choose who she wants to spend her live with. She was deeply in love with William Shakespeare but she couldnt be with him because of the difference of the classes that separates both of them. Shes was in a much higher and richer class compared to William. Because of this Viola had to leave behind her love for William and marry someone that she didnt love and barely know because of the obligation as a daughter of her parents.





Rosaline too did not have much control of her live. She came from a low rank and poor family. To support her life, she has to be the mistress of Burbage even when her true love is actually Will Shakespeare. You can see clearly that Rosaline did not have much control of her life too from the way people talked to her. Shes being treated like a ‘maid’ and a ‘sex object’. People disgrace her because they think that she sleeps around for the sake of money.





Queen Elizabeth, a prominent figure who is given unduly respect and holds strong command. It is sad to say that the queen also couldn’t escape such ill treating during that time. The queen didnt have much control of her love life as well. She was being forced into a marriage with one of the prince of Spain. She didnt have any choice because she bares royal blood and she couldnt just marry anyone. She also had to play her role as the leader of the country even if she didn’t like it.





I would conclude that such acts actually violate the human rights. People should be allowed to do things that they want to do and not the way that people want them to. It is such a blessing that the people finally came to realize about how bad it is and that things are not as bad now as how it was during the Elizabethan England era.





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Saturday, January 28, 2012

Colonial Narrative Writers

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Colonial Narrative Writers


Ms. Little 1st period


Vandana Murty


The people who explored or had life-altering experiences in the New World were the informative writers of colonial times. Most of the books were a product of remarkable experiences by gifted individuals who felt the need to share with other people. Some of these said writers were; Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Pedro de Castaneda, John Smith, William Bradford, and Mary Rowlandson. De Vaca, Castaneda and Smith were the professional explorers in this group and Bradford and Rowlandson were settlers. Each had something different to write about, but still related to one another in very significant ways.


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Many writers of the day wrote about the opportunistic land to inform their reader and perhaps to encourage them to settle in the New World. Others, like de Vaca weren’t blessed with a wonderful experience to write about. When de Vaca arrived to the New World in the 150, he wandered around in Texas for eight years before traveling home again. The journey was very tough. Out of three hundred men, only three, including de Vaca survived. De Vaca in unique because he was one of the few writers who did not keep a journal, instead de Vaca wrote his book out of memory. Considering that de Vaca wrote his book in the 1550’s, twenty years later, this resulted in very broad details, a traumatic view of the New World and probably some exaggeration in descriptions. He wrote chronologically by what he remembered and wrote from the first person view. De Vaca’s intent for writing The Narrative of his Journey was far from sincere, he needed money and wanted to give some honor to his name as an author. However, his book does provide some interesting facts and a different perspective of America as we know it today.


Pedro de Castaneda came to America in 1540 and spent two years here. Like de Vaca, Castaneda was a Spanish explorer. Unlike de Vaca, Castaneda kept a journal and wrote in abundant detail. He also published his book out of genuine interest and was one of the few amateur colonial writers to do so. Castaneda wrote about his experiences in the 1560’s through a book entitled, The Journey of Coronado. As stated before, Castaneda writes in very minute detail by describing the buffalo and the healthy grass and trees. Ironically, even though he keeps a day-to-day journal, Castaneda writes his book thematically with chapters. He does have some personal commentary in his work, but very limited as his journal was the official record of the groups’ expedition and was meant for factual reference only. Castaneda writes from first person and gives a very contradicting view to a reader who has read de Vaca’s book and then Castaneda’s.


John Smith was an English explorer who disembarked in America in 1607. He explored most of the east coast and named Jamestown. Smith was an egotistical yet brilliant soldier. He is associated with the ‘First American Myth’, the Pocahontas episode. He wrote quite a few books, but the main ones are A True Relation, the first English book about the New World; General History of Virginia; and A Description of New England. In the General History of Virginia, Smith writes in third person, but refers to himself as Captain Smith. As stated already, Smith is a bit self-centered, so he praises himself, his looks, genius, and tactics throughout the book. Smith writes chronologically and includes detail, but not as much as Castaneda. There is some indirect commentary in his book, but personal commentary is limited. For example, he may describe something as he sees it, but not make it certain that it is his opinion being stated. In his third book, A Description of New England, Smith does a tremendous job of leaving himself out of it and writing in second person to focus directly on the reader. Smith’s intent in this book is to convince British people who don’t have any obligations or responsibilities to settle in New England. He also encourages others who need to start over in life to come to this land. Smith gives many appealing reasons such as wealth for the homeland and personal satisfaction through hard work. These morals are the basis for the American ideal today. Hard work, perseverance, and living a moral life are a few of the many characteristics that make a true ‘American’. So, while Smith may not have been the most appealing personality to know, he did contribute much to the latter America.


William Bradford was the only writer who never intended on publishing anything. He wrote in his journal of the Puritan’s experiences while settling. He wrote of God’s providence and hard work so that the future generations would know of their forefathers and not forget their morals. Half of the journal was recorded in the Church records, but when British explorers rampaged and burned the town, a British soldier stole the original. It was later published in Britain. Bradford wrote his journal in the 160’s. The details Bradford included were broad and carefully chosen. Out of all five authors discussed, Bradford is the one who includes the most commentary. Although most of the book, Plymouth Plantation, is written in third person, he interjects to include his personal commentary and then continues writing in third person again. William Bradford and Castaneda relate in the fact that both write out of genuine interest or concern. They don’t write to restore their reputation, like de Vaca, or to bring fame, like Smith. These two writers are seemingly the more connecting writers during these times.


Mary Rowlandson is unique first, because she is one of the very few female writers in the colonial age. Second, because hers is an archetype, or an initial representation of that kind of book. Rowlandson writes about her experience as a hostage of a Native American tribe. She was held prisoner for nearly three months and then ransomed for eighty dollars by a Puritan settlement. Rowlandson’s purpose for her book was to restore her reputation. Since Rowlandson was a Puritan, even if she was raped it was considered sinful on her behalf. Since Rowlandson wasn’t she needed to establish that fact so she wasn’t shunned. Also Rowlandson realized that the pagan Indians had humane feelings. When she was weeping for her lost child, they gave her food and clothes to console her. She was not treated roughly, but more like a servant. The Indians were also going through rough times, hunger and lack of shelter, but they still kept her alive. Rowlandson’s book was written chronologically and in first person with very minute details, but little commentary. Rowlandson wrote her book A Narration of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson in 1675 in and passed away shortly afterward.


Although colonial literature was very different from modern literature it holds much factual and emotional value. Many Americans don’t know where the ‘American ideal’ derived from or how hard the Puritans had to work while settling. These books provide needed information. Whether these works were the result of exhilarating experiences or the by-products of struggles, they paint narrative literature with vibrant colors.





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Responsibilities

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Responsibilities





There were many instances in my life that have shaped my values, intellect, and academic or career goals. I was raised by my parents to become a hard worker, independent, and caring young adult. I was taught how to be all these qualities by a combination of experiencing and witnessing them first hand.


I quickly learned at a very young age the value of hard work. Both of my parents had worked hard to achieve their dreams of a nice home, cars, and financial stability. Their working hard not only paid off financially, but they taught my brother and I, that working hard was imperative to life. I was given a set of chores and an allowance every week, which taught me responsibility and how to manage money. I also realized that cooperation goes hand in hand with hard work. My brother and I would help each other with our chores from time to time. I did not know that cooperation works on a larger scale in the workplace, which sometimes one needs help to achieve their ultimate goal.


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Growing up with a brother taught me to be unselfish, patient, and respectful. Being the youngest, I learned I would not always get what I wanted. I would have to be patient and wait my turn for a lot of things, such as the telephone and bathroom. I was glad that I was able to grow up with a sibling to teach me these lifelong lessons. Both of us had to be respectful of each other or we would risk getting in trouble with my parents.


My parents raised me to be independent, which I can say that I am. I learned that I cannot always rely on other people and that I need to do things for myself, I control my own destiny. If I needed or wanted something done, then I would have to do it myself. I got a job in order to take my financial independence from my parents, one step further. At the same time, I was learning to be responsible.


My father had always put pressure on me to be school oriented. I played numerous sports, but was required to maintain decent grades in order to participate in my athletic leagues. I had to study each night and prepare for all my tests to do well. There were sometimes when studying was the last thing on my mind, but I still managed to set aside a little time to look over my schoolwork. I was forced to balance my academic life with my athletic life. If I were not brought up to do well academically, I would not have the desire to take my education to a higher level.


The combination of my familys influence and my own will power has molded me into a self-reliant, well-rounded young adult. Hard work, determination, and a clear academic focus are lifelong lessons that I learned through example and experience.





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Friday, January 27, 2012

Maya Angelou: Influence of her life in her writing.

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Maya Angelou’s works were highly influenced by the instability of her childhood, her experiences as a mother, and the challenges of being an African American woman growing up in 0th century America. Angelou’s major themes throughout her writing were inspired by the dream of overcoming the struggles that were ever-present in her life. Her struggles only made her into a stronger, independent woman who cares for people.


Maya Angelou was born April 4, 18, in St. Louis, Missouri, as Marguerite Johnson. When Angelou was about three years old her parents, Bailey Johnson, a naval dietician, and Vivian Johnson, sent Maya and her brother to live with their grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas. While Angelou was growing up in Stamps, she realized what it was like to be a little black girl in a world dominated by white people. Maya was conditioned to believe that white girls led better and easier lives than African American girls did. Regardless of the society and attitude surrounding Angelou’s lifestyle, her grandmother instilled pride and confidence in Maya, which would help her and guide her for years to come.


After five years of being apart from their mother, Maya and her brother were sent back to St. Louis to live with her. The happiness surrounding the reunion with her mother quickly disappeared when Maya was raped by her mother’s boyfriend at the age of eight. Following this traumatic incident, Maya did not speak for nearly five years. Maya’s mother was unable to deal with the depressive state her daughter was in, so she sent Maya back to Stamps to live with her grandmother. Slowly, Angelou began to gain her pride and confidence back with the continuous help of her grandmother’s close friend, Mrs. Flowers.


In 140, she was once again sent back to live with her mother, now living in San Francisco. Life with her mother proved to be too hard for Maya, so she ran away to live with her father and his girlfriend in his trailer. When Angelou realized life with her father was no better, she turned to living in a yard of old, beat up cars that served as houses for other homeless children. Maya did not go back to live with her mother for one month. Angelou’s rough childhood caused her to believe she had to grow up quickly and she forced herself into maturity. Angelou became pregnant at the age of 16 and gave birth to her son, Guy.


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After the birth of her son, Maya lived an adventurous life filled with failed marriages, drug use, prostitution, and a journey to find a “home”, a place to belong. Most importantly, however, was her incredible journey as a mother. Maya struggled to develop a relationship with her son throughout his life, because she was not around for parts of it. It was not until the early 160s that Maya began to write her awe-inspiring poetry and books. In her life Maya has been a waitress, actress, writer, dancer, activist, journalist, and teacher.


The difficulties Maya faced in her childhood forced her to put on a strong front. She became very independent because she was unable to rely on anyone in particular throughout most of her life, other than herself. The difficult life of Maya Angelou and her work are completely intertwined.


Maya’s rough and eventful life made fine inspiration for her writing. Maya wrote a multivolume autobiographical narrative consisting of five books. These works are I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Gather Together in My Name, Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin Merry Like Christmas, The Heart of a Woman, and All God’s Children Need Travelin’ Shoes. Her autobiographical works went in order as to the events which occurred in her life.


The first volume and perhaps the most obviously autobiographical, is I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. The name of this book was inspired by a poem written by Sir Lawrence Dunbar called “Sympathy.” This volume covers Maya Angelou’s childhood. The story follows a young girl, also named Maya, through her childhood up until the birth of her son, also named Guy.


In I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Maya deals with the difficulty of being a little black girl in a time when the world was dominated by white people. She expresses her realization of this white supremacy when she says “I was going to look like one of the sweet little white girls who were everybody’s dream of what was right in the world”(Angelou 4). Along with dealing with this realization, she and her brother, Bailey, were sent away to a strange place by their parents, holding on to their identification tag, which said “To whom it may concern- that we were Marguerite and Bailey Johnson Jr., from Long Beach, California, en route to Stamps, Arkansas, c/o Mrs. Annie Henderson”(Angelou 6). Just as Angelou and her brother Bailey were sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps, so was Maya and her brother, also Bailey. After living in Stamps, Maya and her brother were sent to San Francisco to live with their mother. The book continues to reiterate Angelou’s life until the birth of a son. Just as Angelou’s childhood ended with the birth of her son, Guy, the volume ends with Maya’s son.


The next volume of Angelou’s autobiography is Gather Together in My Name. This volume covers the struggles of being a teenage mother and of being forced to grow up instantly. At the opening of Gather Together in My Name Maya is 17 and is the mother of a two month-old fatherless son. Maya introduces herself in the book by saying, “I was seventeen, very old, embarrassingly young, with a son of two months, and I still lived with my mother and stepfather”(Angelou ). In this line Maya expresses her embarrassment and discomfort of being a teenage mother.


Gather Together in My Name also explores Angelou’s days of prostitution and heroin addiction. Angelou briefly worked as a prostitute for a pimp disguised as a love-struck gambler, and it was in that period of her life in which she became addicted to heroine. The most alarming mother-son incident in Gather Together… was when Maya left her son with a sitter while she went to work as a prostitute. When she returned for her son a few days later he had been kidnapped. Her son was finally returned to his mother, untouched, and it was then that she realized that her son was her responsibility and not just a “beautiful appendage of [herself]”(Angelou 16). From this point on, separation with her son became a recurring theme in her writing.


Gather Together In My Name closed with Guy and Maya returning to the safety of Maya’s mother’s house. Maya had experienced the horror of heroin addiction and she said, “ I had no idea what I was going to make of my life, but I had given a promise and found my innocence. I swore I’d never lose it again”(Angelou 181). Maya was determined not to disappoint herself or her son ever again by lowering her standards of life.


The third volume in Angelou’s autobiography is Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin Merry Like Christmas. This book is one of two transitional volumes on Maya’s journey to self-acceptance. It covers about five years of Angelou’s life from the ages of about to 7.


The main drama in Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin Merry Like Christmas is between Maya, the mother, and Maya, the actress. When Maya decides to leave her son with her mother to pursue her acting career, with the company of “Porgy and Bess,” she chooses her career over her son, which caused a rift between the two later on. Angelou realizes that she is putting Guy in the same position she was put in as a child, when her mother left her to live with her grandmother.


The past revisited. My mother had left me with my grandmother for years and I knew the pain of parting. My mother, like me, had had her motivations, her needs. I did not relish visiting the same anguish on my son and she, years later, told me how painful our separation was to her. But I had to work and I had to be good. (Angelou 1)


The subject of parental abandonment was familiar to Maya Angelou. She too was sent to live with her mother and was abandoned by her mother. Singin’ and Swingin’ and Getting’ Merry Like Christmas deals with a more serious emotional side of Angelou instead of just an autobiographical volume.


The fourth volume is The Heart of a Woman. This volume reveals Maya’s experiences as a performer, activist, and journalist in the late 150s to early 160s. It treats Angelou’s marriage, involvement with the civil rights movement, and once again her relationship with her son. It also touches on her own writing.


The main theme in The Heart of a Woman however was Maya’s relationship with her son, Guy, and the similarities it had with her relationship with her mother. There was a point in the book, when Guy went to New York to live with his mother again, where it showed Guy’s resistance to Angelou’s attempts to make a family again. Maya discussed the tension between the two when she wrote, “‘The air between us [Maya and Guy] was burdened with his aloof scorn. I understood him too well’”(Bloom 6). It hurt Maya to see what her son as he was because she understood what he was feeling.


In The Heart of a Woman, Maya travels a lot and she strengthens her public identity, becoming a coordinator in the civil rights movement and a professionally recognized dancer and actress. She also for the first time in her narratives, begins to talk about herself as a writer. “If I wanted to write, I had to be willing to develop a kind of concentration found mostly in people awaiting execution”(Bloom 186).


The Heart of a Woman ends with the separation of Maya and Guy once again. Guy, a student at the University of Ghana, is moving into a dormitory. “ ‘I closed the door and held my breath. Waiting for the wave of emotion to surge over me, knock me down, take my breath away’ ”(Bloom 186). Maya feared for her child to be on his own because she was scared when she had to grow up and go off in to the world.


The fifth and final volume of Angelou’s narratives is All God’s Children Need Travlin’ Shoes. This volume picks up right where The Heart of a Woman left off. This book takes place primarily in Ghana and deals with her early attempts in the 160s to return to her ancestral home of Africa. Angelou dedicated the book to Julian Mayfield and Malcom X, who were also both passionately and earnestly in search of their symbolic home.


All God’s Children Need Travelin’ Shoes continues with the common theme of searching for a home, a place to belong. Maya wrote about her idea of home “We [Maya and Guy] had been each other’s home and center for seventeen years. He could die if he wanted to and go off to wherever dead folks go, but I, I would be left without a home”(Bloom 05).


As a whole, All God’s Children Need Travelin’ Shoes recounts the events that brought Angelou to the realization and eventually the acceptance that there is and unreachable distance between Africans and ancestral Africans. Those events were similar to Angelou’s own experiences in Ghana, trying to get in touch with her own heritage.


All God’s Children Need Travelin’ Shoes ended with Maya leaving Ghana. Maya not only leaves Ghana, but in doing so leaves Guy there to live his own life. Like the four previous narratives this on ended with a mother-son configuration.


In the end, Maya Angelou’s works were highly influenced by the instability of her childhood, her experiences as a mother, and the challenges of being an African American woman growing up in 1th century America. Maya’s life and work are so fully intertwined that throughout her five volume narratives she chronologically followed events, which occurred in her life, in the order in which they occurred. Most of the characters in the books also shared the same names as their real life counterparts.


Maya Angelou speaks numerous languages fluently, including French, Spanish, Italian, and West African Fanti. She has also traveled abroad to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. She worked as a journalist and has been honored by the academic world, receiving the Yale University Fellowship Award, being names a Rockefeller Foundation Scholar in Italy, and has 1 honorary degrees at different colleges across the country. Maya is also a renowned professor of American Studies at Wake Forest University. Among some of her other accomplishments are, being named Woman of the Year in Communications, by the Ladies’ Home Journal and nominations for the Pulitzer Prize and Tony Award.


Maya Angelou’s incredible journey though life has inspired so many people through her writing. Her poetry and personal narratives are representatives of herself as an inspiration to all people, especially black women looking to survive sexism, racism, and/or bad childhoods. It has also made her a strong loving individual who accepts all people. In an interview Angelou said, “I am human and nothing human can be alien to me”(Schafer).


Works Cited


Angelou, Maya. All God’s Children Need Travelin’ Shoes. New York Vintage Books, 11.


Angelou, Maya. Gather Together In My Name. New York Bantam Books, 175.


Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York Bantam Books, 170.


“Angelou, Maya.” Microsoft Encarta. Online Encyclopedia 00. Available http//encarta.msn.com. 11 February 00.


Angelou, Maya. Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin Merry Like Christmas. New York Bantam Books, 177.


Angelou, Maya. The Heart of a Woman. New York Bantam Books, 18.


Bloom, Harold editor. Modern Critical Views Maya Angelou. Philadelphia Chelsea House Publishers, 1.


Schafer, Nancy Imelda. “Empirezine.” Online. Spyder’s Poetry Empire. Available http//www.empirezine.com/spotlight/maya/maya1.htm. 10 February 00.


Williams, Nancy E. editor. Readings on Maya Angelou. California Greenhaven Press, 17.


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Henry lawson

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Lawsons funny stories are the best. Do you agree???


Reading Henry Lawson short stories was such a delight.He truely made the bush come to life within the stories he wrote. He used humour in many of the stories but not in all of them. I dont agree that Lawsons funny stories were the best because my favourite stories in the book were the stories of Joe Wilson and his life in the bush. These stories about Joe Wilson and his life and family really touched me and helped me to appreciate the comfortable life that I live.Lawson doesnt use humour in The Joe Wilson stories because Joe is telling us about his life the good and the hardships he has delt with its not about humour but purely simply about life and the Life that Joe and Mary lead. What I love about Joe Wilson in these stories is the love that he has towards his wife and his son. In Brightons sister in law he is depicted in this story as a loving father and husband by his actions and what he says in the story for instance when talking about his son He was a wonderful chap Yes, I know all about parents thinking that their child is the best in the world. This really touched me. Lawson uses Joe as a narrator so that we get a better feel of his life. He is sharing his life with the readers.Humour is always good but when a story can really touch you and make you feel something deep and meaningful it truely is a great story. Lawson doesnt use humour in The Joe Wilson stories because Joe is telling us about his way of life the good aspects and the hardships he has delt with.Its not about humour but purely simply about life and the Life that Joe and Mary lead. Brightens sister in law is definately my favourite story in the whole book because this story tells the hardships of bush life and how its hard to make money and that you have to work extra hard to make a living Joe said in the story Before this whenever I made a few punds id sink a shaft somewhere, prospecting for goldbut Mary never let me rest till she had talked me out of it. Also Joes worries about his son in the bush I was scared now.I remembered a neighbour of ours had a little girl die, and when she was going she saidTake the blankets off me,muvver im dying. These are true emotions and feelings and these are the main reasons why i dont agree that Lawsons funny stories are the best. Having and showing love in a story also touches me because I am a sucker for love stories and messeges of love within stories.In the humourless Joe Wilson stories Joe and his wife Mary have alot of hope and optimism even after all the hardships they had delt with because they are very close and stand by and support each other and their is alot of Love there. They love each other very much.As you can see I have made it clear the reasons why I believe in my opinion that Lawsons funny stories are not the best because I was much more moved by the Joe Wilson stories which didnt contain humour but just his way of life.







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Thursday, January 26, 2012

LOTF

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Tom Fenton 4B ‘How Priestley sets the Atmosphere in the


Opening Scenes of the play ‘An Inspector Calls’


In his play An Inspector Calls, Priestly sets the scene for what is going to happen in the rest of the play in the opening of the Priestly play. He achieves this using stage directions and the way that the characters speak to each other.


In the very beginning of the book, Priestly tells us a lot about the characters and their backgrounds using stage directions ‘and her husbands social superior’’. From this we can tell that Mrs Birling is Mr. Birling’s social superior. It is obvious from the play that Mr. Birling feels uneasy about this. He obviously wants a title for himself and he is conscious of his social status. These stage directions introduce the scene and tell you a bit of what to inspect in the play. In places they drop little hints ‘Eric is in his twenties, not quite at ease…’ This tells us that perhaps Eric is uneasy about sitting with his family because he has a secret or is hiding something. Priestly drops quite a few hints like this in the play.


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On page of the play Priestly gives us an insight into what might happen in the play when Eric ‘guffaws’ when Gerald says that the reason he was not with Sheila in the summer was that he was working hard in his fathers business. This suggests that perhaps this statement be Gerald is not strictly true and gives us an idea about what may happen in the future. It also means that Eric knows what Gerald has been up too and this could cause friction between the two characters in the rest of the play and gives a hint of future conflict. It also could mean that the family is not a very close one and the members are not always very close.


As mentioned above the Birling family is not very close. Priestly tells us this almost straight way in the play ‘If you think that’s the best she can do…’ This suggests that Mrs. Birling is not very close to Sheila because she is suprised when Sheila uses the word ‘squiffy’. And Eric reveals that it is not the only word like that she knows. This piece of dialogue reveals to us that the Birling family is not very close and they don’t know each other very well. Mrs Birling still seem to still treat Sheila like her little girl, thus, she is suprised to learn that she knows much more vulgar language than she expected.





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Wednesday, January 25, 2012

steinbeck

If you order your cheap essaysfrom our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on steinbeck. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality steinbeck paper right on time.

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I. Childhood


A. He was born in Salinas California.


B. He was born on February 7, 10 to German and Irish parents.


C. He went to Salinas’s high school.


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II. College


A. He went to Stanford University.


B. Wrote many short stories and poems in college.


C. He worked many jobs to support his family.


III. Life After College


A. Wrote many books


B. Unsuccessful at first


C. Married a few times


IV. Books


A. Won a Nobel Prize for Literature in 16


B. He also won a Pulitzer Prize.


V. End of Career


A. Won the Nobel Prize


B. He later died on December 0, 168 in New York City


Maycomb Courier


Sunday, November 1, 1 $.05


Sports Black man charged with rape





In local sports Tom Robinson has been charged with the


news the rape of Mayella Ewell. It happened on


Maycomb Rebels November 1. They will have many people


defeated the testify a well respected lawyer in


Birmingham Bats Maycomb Atticus Finch will be defending


15-11 in local Mr. Robinson. Some of the people that


AAA baseball. Are going to testify are Bob Ewell the


father of Mayella, the sheriff Heck Tate and many other people.


Depression Hits the West


The Great Depression that has plagued most of the country including Maycomb


has made its way out west. The hardest hit places are Los Angles, and San Francisco.





WEATHER


5 DAY FORECAST


Today Sunny 75/6


Monday Rain 80/65


Tuesday Partly Cloudy 70/5


Wednesday Sunny 0/7


Thursday Sunny /8


Classifieds


Help Wanted Help Wanted Autos ForSale Lost and found


Paper Boy for Maycomb Courier Pays Good!!!! Factory Worker Can’t pay very good until business picks up 10 Ford T- Bird Good condition $400 Found dog American Bulldog Brown patch on left eye see Sheriff Tate


Lawyer assistant Call or visit Atticus Finch Painter experience please wants a painting of cat 1 ford T-Bird like new $500 Found Pants on fence see Boo Radley


Gardener come see Miss Maudie Needs experience Lawyer charged with murder will pay very good hurry please. 18 Chevy boxer $400Excellent condition need the money Lost Cat brown and black hurt leg see Mayella Ewell





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Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Balance of payments

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The balance of payments budget deficit has always been a popular topic of casual discussion at dinner parties among friends. The figures are a watched and followed closely by stockbrokers, fund managers, bonds and currency traders as well as investors. While business leaders, economists and policy makers spend the weekend debating the relevance of these newly acquired numbers on the Sunday business show. Even movie star Arnold Schwarzenegger who is running for governor of California was quoted in the Courier-Mail (0 August. 00, p.) saying that he was disgusted at the massive budget deficit blamed on mismanagement by politicians. Clearly the Balance of payment is very important to the citizens of the country. But is having a budget deficit really that bad?


This essay will begin by firstly explaining the composite construct of the Australian Balance OF Payments (BOP). Secondly we will compare and contrasts the United States (US) system of accounts with the Australian BOP. Thirdly, we will use the recent 10 year BOP data to compare the performance, direction and implications for these countries. It will be shown that by just quoting a budget deficit, it is not enough to see the overall picture of where the economy is heading. It is not in the scope of this essay to prove existing economic theory on the BOP, as this is not an economic paper.


Cumby and Levich (14, p. 11) describes the balance of payments (BOP) as “the name given to the record of transactions between the residents of one country and the rest of the world over a period of time.”


In Australia the BOP is made up of two general main categories the current account and the capital and financial account.


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The current account records all international goods and services. The Australian BOP current account consists of sub-accounts states McLennan (18, p. 5). The first is goods and services, second is income and the third account current transfers. With in each one they are further sub-categorized in to smaller accounts. It is usually a one year timeframe that all short term transactions are recorded in the current account.


Figure 1 shows the current account with the board categories.





According to McLennan (18, p. 5) the goods account comprise most movable goods that change ownership between an Australian resident and a non-resident. This account is further broken down into, general merchandise, goods for processing, repairs on goods, goods procured in ports by carriers, and non-monetary gold for a more in-depth analyses.


Services account is where services are provided or received between an Australian resident and non-residents. It is also broken down into smaller more informative sub-accounts providing specific information on our major service sectors.


In the income account is where all transactions of income are kept. These include everything from dividend payments received by a resident from a non-resident foreign company to an Australian receiving an income form a foreign based firm. Again the accounts are also further divided into its relevant sub-accounts.


The last account in the current account is the current transfer account. Transfers are considered to be the provision of resources to a non-resident country with no expectations of an economic return. These include foreign food aid other donations supplied to non-residents. McLennan (18, p. 7) stressed that current transfers needs to be distinguished form capital transfer which is located in the capital account. The distinction is that if the aid is consumed within 1 months of being received then it is considered a current transfer, while if it is longer than 1 months it will be classified as a capital transfer and will be located in the capital account. This distinction is in line of the view that all short term transaction will take place within 1 months and are recorded in the current account.


The capital account and financial account are the second category of accounts used in the BOP. The capital account comprises of both capital transfers as distinguished with the current transfers. The “acquisition and disposal of non-produced, non financial assets” (McLennan, 18, p. 8) such as copyrights are also included. Figure gives an in-depth look at the capital and financial accounts.


The financial comprises of long term financial transactions between an Australian and a non-resident which will lead to a change of ownership in Australian’s foreign assets or liabilities. This account is closely related with Australia’s international investment positions.


Together the capital account and the financial account represents Australia’s financial long term foreign investment position.


Figure shows the Capital and the Financial account





The BOP uses a double entry accounting system to replicate the financial position of a country as if it is treated as a business entity. A debit entry on the BOP is any transaction that gives rise to an outflow of foreign currency or a negative sign, while a credit on BOP is a transaction which will cause an inflow of foreign currency shown with a positive sign. As in accounting for a firm, all transactions have a credit entry and also a corresponding debit entry to produce a net balance of zero.


However in reality this is never the case and there is a special account on the BOP called Net Errors and Omissions which exists for completion of the accounting style. It is located on the last line of the capital and financial account. It exists so that discrepancies between credit and debits entries can be balanced off.


Discrepancies in amounts arise because of the complexities of recording an entire nation’s transactions in the international arena for a particular period of time. For every given period there are a large number of transactions taking place. Because there are no single source of getting the transactions, each and every transactions needs to be individually recorded in order to produce the BOP data. The sources of data are form very diverse areas, from a bank trading in financial derivatives to a university selling education overseas.


Timing is also another factor which further makes it hard to get accrete numbers. Firstly there are lags in time between payments of goods and the when the goods actually arrive.


Secondly because the exchange rate is always fluctuating, converting local currency into us dollars at different exchange rates will lead to inconsistencies. The Australia Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the organization responsible for compiling the BOP figures and the figures are revised each quarter.


Before we can start to compare the Australian BOP with the American BOP we will firstly need to make sure they are comparable in structure and classification. The latest edition of the Balance Of Payments Manual 5th edition (BPM5) published by the International Monterey Fund (IMF) in 16 is the standard which the Australian BOP is compiled in accordance with. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) (10, p) the US BOP complies with the standards of the Balance Of Payments Manual 4th edition (BPM4) with a few slight exceptions. However because BEA (10) seems rather dated, it is very possible that by now the US BOP will have been written in accordance with the latest BPM5 which is the international standard.


The major difference between the Australian BOP and the US BOP in the naming and the additions of specific accounts in the BOP and also the currency the data are reported in. According to the BEA most of the accounts have the same basic meaning as with the Australian BOP.


As with the Australian BOP, the US BOP is also conceptually also split into board accounts. The accounts are the current, capital and the financial account. Differences arise because each country is different in the products they produce and trade. The BOP is a summary of their trading position in comparison with other countries, each country will alter the structure of their BOP to better present the structure of their economy. This is much like a company adjusting their financial records to better reflect the specific type of business they are in. One good example is, the US have a large proportion of their budget spending in the US Military so it is only natural they will have a specific account for that. While Australia is a great exporter of minerals, so under the goods account there is a specific account just for that. But however the over all meaning behind the current, capital and financial account remains the same.


The second difference is that the US BOP is in US dollars while the Australian equivalent is compiled with Australian dollars. Before attempting the compare the performance of the two countries one must make sure the data are comparable.


Initially, the overall look of the two BOP looked different, however it is just the way in which they are set out. The IMF does not have a preferred way in which the accounts are placed. There are many different ways you could represent these figures to best suit your needs.


These initial differences can be clearly seen in figure .





What are the implications of the BOP?


As we can see in the figure 4 and 5, both Australia and the US has been running a deficit. These figures are still in their raw form. That is the US bop is still in US dollars while the Australian BOP is in Australian Dollars (AUD). However it can be clearly seen that both countries have a deficit in trade and a surplus in-flow of foreign funded investments.


Over the page are the 10 year BOP data for both Australia and US.





A structural evaluation approach can be used to determine which state of development the countries are in. Both have a deficit on trade (current account) and a long tern capital inflow (surplus in the capital and financial account). According to the characteristics devised by Maximo, Francis and Laurence (18, p.5), both Australia and the US are considered to be an immature debtor. Net foreign investment income is close to zero.


From 186 to 00, Australian has always had a current account deficit, and a capital account surplus. In the periods between 1 to 00, the US too seems to have the characteristics of an immature debtor. Nadler (001, p.4) says, there seems to be a trend continuing as current accounts deficits get increasing larger and the capital account surplus get bigger.


This suggest a slow down in the domestic industries of both countries. As imports over take exports, it is a sign that their exports are un-competitive in the international markets compared with countries like China. Also with “deflation and recession in Japan and Europe” (Waggoner and Shell, 00, p1), demand for US and Australian made products continues to fall.


Unless the currency depreciates prices for exports are still seen as too expensive. Being an immature debtor, the implications for both countries are that their currency not depreciate, but will remain relatively stable.


Although, both countries are running trade deficits, their currency is unlikely to devalue unless there is a drop in foreign funded domestic investments.


There is a sell correcting mechanism where there are free floating exchange rates. It is always thought that when a country run a continual current account deficit (that is they import more than they export), then they will need to sell their own domestic currency to purchase foreign currency in order to repay foreigners. This disposal of domestic funds would devalue the domestic currency.


A devaluation of the currency will then make the domestic products more competitive overseas. As more exports occur, imports will become more expensive and hence domestic consumption of imports will decrease, resulting to a balance of trade.


However there is no evidence of this happening. What is happening is that the currency is being recycled back into the US and Australia by the continual investment in to these countries. This is shown by the surplus in the capital and financial accounts of both countries.


Because US and Australia (as compared to Japan) are seen as a stable economy, investments are coming in which offsets the current account deficit. This is why the dollar is still in demand and would not fall in the foreseeable future unless there is government intervention to lower interest rates or other change monetary and fiscal policy. Or there are signs of depression in either country.


Recently there are some signs that the US might be heading into recession. “Depression is an economic slowdown accompanied by falling prices. Its hallmarks rising inventories, falling demand, rising unemployment and lower wages.” (Waggoner and Shell, 00, p1). This scare resulted in a falling USD.


The fall in USD will mean that for the next period, US products are more completive. This will reduce their trade deficit. By now having more exports and hopefully the domestic consumers will avoid more expensive imports.


A further drop in the US dollar is also expected in the coming year because of the elections. “It is a normal attitude of foreign fund managers to take to the side lines and adopt a wait and see approach during election year” says Aquino (00, p11). This will further see a decree in investment into the US.


Warburton (00, p8) argues that the saving rate of a country is important. He says that if a country does no have enough domestic funds to draw upon i.e. to borrow. Then the country will need to borrow form aboard. This will lead to an increase capital account surplus, or a current account deficit. Another way to make the capital account go in deficit is to make domestic residence save more. Increasing the interest rate and decreasing inflation will encourage residence to save more and spend less. With low inflation, real return will be high. Low interest rates will stimulate imports because residence sees less incentive to save, while higher interest rate encourages more domestic savings. With a pool of domestic funds, there will be less need to borrow over seas.


At this point in time there is no evidence which suggest that having a deficit is an undesirable situation. In both Australia and the US, the BOP deficit has no direct negative implications to the economy.


In conclusion it can be seen that by just judging on the bias of one figure which is the current account balance; weather it be a deficit or a surplus. It is impossible to say if this is good of bad for the economy. It can be seen with the Japanese example that by having a surplus does not automatically make an economy boom. There are so many other factors to consider.





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Monday, January 23, 2012

the red badge of courage

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The red badge of courage is a Civil War novel written about a young solider, henry flemming, who joins the 04th regiment because he is drawn to the glory of military conflict. he wants a to gain a good reputation, hoping that an impressive performance on the battlefield will make him a hero in the eyes of all the men in his regiment. in his first battle, after securing his position and the enemy began its attack, Henry realizes that he could not run even if he wanted to. when the enemies charge again, terror overtakes him and he leaps up and flees from the line, telling himself he did the right thing by preserving his own life. after this, He wanders through a forest in which he encounters the decaying corpse of a soldier. henry is Shaken and he quickly hurries away.


After time, he meets with some wounded men and is inspired by their courage. one of the men repeatedly asks where henry is wounded, which makes Henry deeply uncomfortable. he hurries away to a different part of the column. He meets another soldier who he eventually recognizes the man as jim conklin, a dedicated man in his regiment, who was badly wounded. Henry promises to take care of Jim, but Jim runs from the line into a small grove of bushes where Henry watchs him die.


Henry continues to wander until he finds himself close enough to the battlefield to be able to watch some of the fighting. Eventually, another soldier leads Henry to his regiments camp, where Henry is reunited with his companions. The very next day, the regiment proceeds back to the battlefield. Henry fights like a lion. Thinking of Jim Conklin, he vents his rage against the enemy soldiers. after the flag of the regiment fell, henry takes the flag and carries it proudly before his regiment. The group is sent into more fighting, and Henry continues to carry the flag. The regiment charges a group of enemy soldiers, and capture four prisoners. As he and the others march back to their position, Henry reflects on his experiences in the war. Though he revels in his recent success in battle, he feels deeply ashamed of his behavior the previous day. But after a moment, he puts his guilt behind him and realizes that he has come through the red sickness of battle. He is now able to look forward to peace, feeling a quiet, steady manhood within himself.


i liked reading this book because i liked the way the author showed how henry changed throughout the entire novel. he was constantly changing, from running away from battle, to carrying the flag proudly for his regiment. it really showed that henry was a changed man who was truly a man who fought for his courage.


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Revolution iN China

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Research Notes for Assignment on Revolution in China


General Information on China


• In 111 china was declared a democratic country


• China has come to be dominated by foreign powers


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• China is republic


• Lacks real military and political force


• Ruled by emperors


• Emperors had all the power if they were weak they would be over thrown


• There were three main religions in china Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.


• Confucianism were the main teachings of China. You had to be educated to become a mandarin and education was expensive therefore only the wealthiest people became mandarins.


• There were two political parties; guomindag (nationalists) and communists


• Sun Yatsen had started many revolts, most of which were successful


• There was growing support for the nationalist party


• After Sun Yatsen had started the revolts he was forced to leave china.


• As a sign of revolt the men cut their pigtails


• Sun Yatsen returned from exile he was elected Provincial President


• The Chinese government sent armies to get rid of sun and his followers, these backfired as the general made an agreement with Sun


• After the 111-1 revolution there was poverty and disease


• There was very little land for the peasants who had to pay high taxes and rent


Information on Chosen Character Emperor Puyi


• Wasn’t Chinese


• Member of the Ch’ing dynasty


• Manchu Nationality


• Born 106


• Died 167


• Descended form nomads


• From her death bed empress Cixi nominated Puyi to be her successor


• Puyi is forced to leave his family to live in the forbidden city


• Puyi’s father. Prince Ch’un, served as a regent in Puyi’s palace


• Puyi was a conformist, he went along with ideas in order to keep the peace


• He lived in luxury for most of his life but was considered by his peers to be meek.


• He trusted many people and was easily betrayed


• Became emperor at age


• It was decided in 117 when Puyi was that an effort would be made to restore him to power


• Accusations form Chinese government said that he was being used as a puppet.


• The first air raids were launched upon the forbidden city


• Puyi’s supporters left him and he later lost the throne.


• After losing the throne he remained in the forbidden city and lived much as he did before


• He did not meet another child until he was seven when his siblings came to visit him.


• When Puyi’s brother came to visit, Puyi noticed that the lining of his sleeve had golden lining (which was considered a colour reserved for emperors) in a fit of rage Puyi began screaming at his brother.


• Puyi studied history, poetry and Chinese, he later took up English


• Puyi realized he was a prisoner within the forbidden city and made an attempt to escape


• At the age of 16 it was decided that Puyi should marry, he at first picked a 1 year old, he was told she was too ugly and would not be suitable as an empress, he then picked another and later married.


• In 14 Puyi was forced to leave the forbidden city taking with him only his imperial seal and a briefcase of precious stones


• He went to live in his father’s mansion and was treated like a normal citizen, which he most enjoyed.


• Puyi’s reign was called the Hsuan T’ung


• Even though Puyi wasn’t emperor people still knelt and kowtowed to him.


• He did not see his mother until he was 10. She died when he was 1 after swallowing a ball of opium.


• It was a common argument between consorts and his mother (before her death) no how Puyi was to be raised.


• Puyi was visited every few months by his father who never stayed for more that two minutes.


• Where ever Puyi went in the forbidden city he was followed buy a huge procession


• Even when he wasn’t emperor he was treated like a god, he had no set mealtimes; when he wanted to eat he would simply command ‘Bring the food’ as soon as he said this he would be brought 6 tables of food.


• The changes in china would be supported by the emperor as he was much for the people’s welfare.


• Although being forced to abdicate a number of times, Puyi preferred being a normal citizen thus I think he would think it for the better with the new system of governance; the absence of emperors


• Puyi was a devout Buddhist and stopped his consorts killing flies and mice


• Puyi was married for most of his life having wives.





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