Tuesday, October 25, 2011

How did Hitler turn Germany from a democracy into a dictatorship between 1933 and 1934? How far did he have full control by 1934?

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Hitler only took eighteen months to collapse the Weimar democracy between February 1 and August 14 and to establish his own dictatorship. These changes all began from Hindenburg appoints Hitler as the German Chancellor.


Hitler’s powers increased enormously between 1 to 14. But it wasn’t easy for him, he had to go over some obstacles. His first step to dictatorship was really the most difficult one. At the start of 1, Germany was a democracy, this means the system of the government by the whole people of a country through representatives whom they select. So, Hitler could only make laws if the Reichstag agreed to them. At that time more than half the seats in the Reichstag belonged to parties which doesn’t agree with Hitler’s ideas, he was not happy on the amount of seats he has in the Reichstag. As the Chancellor of Germany, he arranged for a general election to be held in March 1. In this election he hoped that his Nazi Party would win a major victory and will get a majority of the seats in the Reichstag. A week before the voting day, Hitler’s luck began. The Reichstag building went up in flames. Marianus van der Lubbe, a communist, was caught on the scene with matches and fire-lighters in his pockets. Hitler saw this as an opportunity to blame on the other parties, so he said it was the start of a Communist plot to take over the country. So, he went to President Hindenburg and asked him to make a special law, the Law for the Protection of the People and State. Hindenburg was the only person who had power to enable new laws in an emergency, even if the Reichstag didn’t agree. Hindenburg did not realize that this law would help Hitler become a dictator, so he made the law that Hitler wanted. This new law banned Communists and Socialists from taking part in the upcoming election campaign. Four thousand of them were throw into prison. But the results of the election weren’t good. As a result of banning the Communists, Hitler and the Nazis won just under half the vote. It wasn’t what Hitler wanted, he wanted more. But it was good enough to persuade the new Reichstag to agree to the Enabling Act on rd March 1. This will let Hitler make laws without asking the Reichstag. So now Hitler can do whatever he likes to his opponents without worrying what the Reichstag and Hindenburg thought of him.


Hitler used this law to get rid of anyone and any parties that got in his way to total power. On 7th April 1 he put Nazi officials in charge of the local governments which ran Germany’s regions. On nd May he closed down trade unions, took away their finances and put their leaders in prison. In this period, Hitler also ordered to publicly burned books by Jewish authors in Berlin. This will mean that he gets censorship, so the German people can only read what Hitler wants them to read. On the 14th July, he made a Law against the Formation of New Parties. This means that the Nazi Party was the only party allowed to exist in Germany, anyone trying to set up or run a new party would be punished with three years hard labour. Now, Germany became a one party state. The Nazi Party even controlled the police force of Germany.


Hitler made Germany into a one party state but he had problems to deal with in the Nazi Party. Two million people of the Nazi Party were Storm Troopers. Their leader Ernst Roehm, wanted to make his Storm Troopers part of the Army. But Hitler and the army generals hated this idea because this would make Roehm the most powerful man in Germany. Some other reasons why Hitler didn’t like the SA were that he no longer trusted them, Rohem wanted to push Hitler into certain policies which Hitler thought unwise and the dislike of the reputation of many SA leaders may have been a cause for the Night of the Long Knives . In the morning of 0th June 14 (also known as ‘The Night of the Long Knives), Roehm and the other SA leaders were arrested on Hitler’s orders, they were taken to prison and shot. Over the next few days, about 400 people were arrested and executed in the same way. The killings were done by the SS, the finest people in the army. Now, they were Hitler’s own bodyguards.


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On nd August, President Hindenburg dies from old age, aged 87. Hitler immediately took over and merges President and Chancellor into one role, gave him self the title ‘Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor. On the exactly same day, the officers and the men of the army makes a personal oath of allegiance to Hitler.


Hitler now has the total power on the political side, but he still hasn’t got the total power of the people of Germany.


Even though Hitler had made a major triumph on the political side of Germany, he didn’t have complete control over Germany by 14. Hitler didn’t have the support of all the people of Germany. He wasn’t really far from full control over Germany. So, he would have to control of all forms of expression and communication. This was done by propaganda and censorship. This was controlled by Gobbels, the head of the Nazi Ministry of People’s Enlightenment and Propaganda. So he tried a few propagandas to gain the people’s mind towards Nazi. He used the radio to broadcasts his speeches, it would have been listened to by workers, pupils in the classroom and families at home. Hitler had full control of the arts, he burned works from writers and only allow works that Hitler would like the people to read. He had control of the universities, nazi interfered with researches in the universities. He also had the control of the press, they make sure that all news from officially approved agencies. Journalists were directed by the press department of the Ministry of People’s Enlightenment and Propaganda and were given regular briefings on what line to take in their articles. Hitler made mass rallies throughout the country to glorify Nazi rule.


By August 14, Hitler had the control of the political side of Germany, but he didn’t have the full control of the people’s mind. So, he didn’t have full control of Germany yet, he had about ¾ of complete control. Another ¼ was the people’s mind, he expand this by doing propagandas. His position in people’s mind are uprising .














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