Thursday, June 30, 2011

Euthanasia

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Velma Howard, age 76, knew her life was coming to an end. Lou Gehrig’s disease was taking away the use of her limbs one by one. Eventually it would affect her throat and she would be in danger of choking on her own saliva. With her left arm useless, and her legs weakening, Velma began to think about an accelerated death. Her health was quickly getting worse. Most of all, she did not want to linger for months in painful decline, dragging down her aging husband and her family at the same time. Velma read books on assisted suicide, talked on the telephone with a right to die group, and discussed her plan with close friends and immediate family. With a lot of thinking, Velma ultimately decided on assisted suicide. Unable to write clearly, Velma made a three-minute audio tape outlining her reasons for deciding to die now rather than wait. On the tape she accepted full responsibility for her actions, stressing that no one else should be blamed.


Velma practiced what is called euthanasia. Euthanasia, which is a Greek word meaning “easy death” can be defined as the act of causing death painlessly, so as to end suffering.


In the articles, “It’s Over Debbie” by Anonymous, “In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia” by Sidney Hook, “Make Mine Hemlock” by Ernest van den Haag, and “The Dignity of Helplessness What Sort of Society Would Euthanasia Create?”by Rand Richards Cooper, all authors with the exception of Cooper agree that euthanasia should be a legal option for a patient.


Euthanasia is a topic that provokes as much controversy as capital punishment and abortion; primarily because it is an irreversible act. The question of euthanasia being offered to a patient is one that most people would prefer to be left alone. However, recent situations such as Velma’s have started considerable discussion and debates. The political and social issues of euthanasia have raised many questions in my mind; and after reading the above articles, I believe euthanasia should be a option for suffering patients for two reasons; it is an unselfish act to end suffering, and a patient should have the option to take his or her life when they are suffering from irreversible illness.


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In the case of euthanasia the patient is deciding to take his or her own life. There are many reasons why a patient may want to end their life unselfishly. One reason maybe the uncontrollable pain the patient no longer wants to endure. In the article, “It’s Over Debbie” by Anonymous, Debbie a 0-year old women was dying of ovarian cancer. Debbie was having unrelentess vomiting, had not responded to chemotherapy, and her overall health was in painful decline. When the gynecology resident entered the room with the syringe that would help Debbie ease into relaxation, and say good-bye, Debbie simply said, “Let’s get this over with,” (401).


Another unselfish reason a patient may want to end their life may be the burden that their sickness puts on the loved ones around them. After being denied the option to discontinue all life supporting services by his doctor, philosophy professor, Sidney Hook was told by his physician that he would some day appreciate the wisdom of doctor not taking his life. Six months later Hook gained almost full recovery, but still did not agree with this physician. Throughout Hook’s illness he dreaded imposing on his family and friends who suffered emotional misery. He would not want his family to go through a second round of pain if he were to suffer another “cardiovascular accident”. “My wife and children endured enough for one lifetime. I know that for them the long days and nights of waiting, the disruption of their personal duties and their own familiar responsibilities counted for nothing in their anxiety for me,” (40).


The motives for these deaths are compassion and an unselfish desire to bring on death when continued living is unbearable for the patient due to their physical and/or mental suffering.


Last winter I was struck with a serious case on pneumonia. I was in the hospital for two weeks. My lungs were fully infected, and a simple thing like turning over was painful. Every morning I was injected with a pain killer called Toradol in my left hip. Toradol never seemed to work and I was always in unbearable pain for the rest of they day. Hypothetically speaking, if I was told by physicians that I would never get better, and I would feel that way for the rest of my life; I would do that of Velma and Debbie and ask for my life to be ended. There is no need for a patient to suffer through a irreversible illness when they can be relieved of their pain.


With euthanasia one is seeking to end physical pain for which there is no other treatment. Euthanasia generally reflects an acceptance or willingness to face the inevitable. To the terminally ill, death is the last hope of maintaining any remnants of dignity left to them in a life where there is no longer any control and is the only escape from a life where pain rules their existence.


In the article, “The Dignity of Helplessness What Sort of Society Would Euthanasia Create?”, author Rand Richard Cooper recalls the death of this mother’s life-long best friend Gretchen who died of lung cancer. Cooper explains what his mother went through while watching her best friend slowly die, “For my mother, there was the anguish of watching a person she loved being overwhelmed by illness-an especially hard kind of sorrow.” After Gretchen had passed away, Cooper explains Gretchen’s death as “...a remorseful, irreversible disease that steals a person from us bit by bit.” Cooper explains that euthanasia offers a way to manage a loved ones death before loved ones have to see their loved one in pain.


Euthanasia is a complex issue. Euthanasia would give patients a greater autonomy over their own lives and give the terminally ill a chance to avoid great pain and emotional distress. I believe that an individual must be able to make their own decisions - if they chose to die to avoid insufferable pain, but are incapable of acting out their wishes, we should be duty bound to help them. If all other options have been exhausted, and especially if the pain cannot be adequately controlled, then the most humane thing would be to allow the person to die...peaceully.


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Employee Attitude/Organizational Behavior

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Introduction


A happy worker makes for a good worker you say? Well, United Airlines had somewhat of an “all for one” employee attitude in July 14. They announced the purchase of their own company for which they work for $5 billion through ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan). So now, in the case of United Airlines, there obviously is a soar in employee productivity and spirits. Stocks have risen 10% due to this buyout (almost three times higher than the airline industry average gain). Every company or small business owner desires a positive employee attitude within his or her organization for high productivity and quality. United Airlines achieved this because the employees themselves took action, but for the majority, it is the management’s first move. Taking the Apple from the tree The Idiot’s Guide for Changing Employee Attitudes would say to pay the employee what O.J. paid his defense team. Take away the money part of a job then no one except an old volunteer worker for a Save the World Foundation or a simple dork is going to show favorable attitudes towards the job. Now let’s get real…but I thought that we were! Money can hypnotize some employees to become a more productive worker, but not all employees. (And even the ones that are motivated at the first glimpse of dead presidents will soon want…. you guessed it, more money in order to drag their lazy ass up the next step). What about Bill Gate’s techno wizards at Microsoft? What sum of money short of Bill’s own bank account is going to motivate these 0-year-old Gulfstream owners to change their snobbish attitudes? On a more practical basis, what about those employees who value intrinsic rewards over the monetary type? Not all employees will be weaned with the flash of cash. So we all must consider the fact that human beings will be consistent towards the general sense of satisfaction, but what sort of things lead to this satisfaction? What kind of satisfaction are we looking for? More so, what is going to satisfy an employee? Most of the research in the study of OB (Organizational Behavior) are concerned with job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. (Robbins, 17) The second two attitudes, job involvement and organizational commitment, are more or less the results of job satisfaction. An employee who has a high level of job satisfaction tends to bear attitudes, which are favorable to the organization. When a prospective employee goes to that interview, there are going to be friends of that prospect who will give the most simple advice of “Sell yourself! This is your chance to prove yourself to that important company!” Little do those simpleton friends know that this is also the chance for the company to lay a sales pitch on the prospect too! Managers are concerned with the efficient operation and profit margin of the company more so than an employees job satisfaction. (Robbins, 17) To managers, an employee’s job satisfaction is just an insurance that the employee will be productive and not skip work, and of course, to get the best man for the job. So of course, when a manager giving the interview favors a prospect, only the job’s favorable side will tend to be revealed. The prospect is told of a wonderland where the corporate ladder is actually a stepping stool. There is no mention of the negative sides, to which the manager does a David Copperfield on. The applicant now has expectations about this job that has to be met by the job or there will be a lot of dissatisfied employees. Balancing the positives with the negatives is important so that the employee will not be disappointed and become a problem that could’ve been avoided from the beginning. (Robbins, 17) Mirror, mirror on the wall…. Successful leaders have vision, communicate well, make effective decisions, and motivate their followers. Employees are more likely to respond to a leader who is likable and credible. A leader who would want to change attitudes must have a very unbiased one. The management’s attitude is going to give employees a very visual idea of how his or her job at the organization is going to generally be, and once an image is set in people’s mind it is difficult to change. From the start, the management must be thought of as fair and consistent. The organization’s workforce must see the manager as a “better” person than they are, a person with integrity, a person who employees won’t feel prideful towards when taking orders from. So even if the leader of an organization is a couch potato at home, he or she must show otherwise in front if the employees; strong leadership qualities must be clear and visible. Lend me your ear, no not you Hollyfield. Many people can talk and talk till they have spoken the extent of their vocabulary, but few individuals have true listening skills. Listening to an employees reason for a certain attitude or behavior is the data gathering part of this science if you will. In order to listen, a manager must be able to put aside his shotgun and really pay attention to the praises and complaints of an employee. He or she must also be able to retain that information. There must be good eye contact so that a speaker will feel that the listener has interest in the material presented. Visual confirmations of the main points of the material must be shown; head nods, facial expressions, etc. This allows you to respond without interrupting the speech of the speaker. Then, when it is the appropriate time, the listener must be able to ask viable questions from the retained information. This helps the speaker feel that the listener is not rushing the conversation, and instead, the listener will appear more interested in solving the conflict. (Van Mechelen, 17) One small step for mankind There are a variety of attitudes, and a variety of commitment levels to attitudes. Try changing a Japanese manager’s attitude. Ever seen it done before? Yeah, I saw it in a certain number of movies like” Mr. Baseball” or “Gung Ho”. These Japanese attitudes in these movies are fictional, but there are attitudes out there that come from beliefs that are as strong as, if not stronger than, the ones from Hollywood. It should be a good manager’s job to be able to decide whether a certain attitude will be easily changed or not. Once this is established, the balancing of techniques and timeliness must be applied. Attitudes cannot be changed drastically nor quickly. There is a reason why people have attitudes; it is a part of them. To change a person takes patience and lots and lots of skills, especially in a boss/employee relationship where it is more formal. Sometimes, all it takes is a warning in simple words to change an unfavorable attitude. This is most effective when it is an attitude which developed from shallow beliefs such as hitting that snooze button one too many times and getting to work ten minutes late almost everyday. The shallow belief here is that getting that ten extra minutes of sleep will make the body feel more refreshed and make it easier to get up to go to work on time or some other. Immediate action to an attitude is also important. Employees will go to extents of “testing” their boss. See what they could get away with. If they feel that their employer will not take action in the near future, then it is safe to assume that there will be some overflowing wastepaper baskets under a lot of desks. A manager must let an employee know right away when there is an unfavorable attitude. It is also imperative that the problem be stated clearly within the interests of the organization’s policy or rules. (Robbins, 17) The employee must feel that the manager is taking action for the sake of the organization rather than a show of power. But here again is a situation that requires balance. This is explained more simply by giving the example of most people who cower at the sight of that motorcop who pulls them over and has a sense of power. Most people will not choose to demonstrate resistance when the cop comes up to the driver’s side window with his dark sunglasses. The cop knows this and does things like wear extra dark sunglasses and show ice-cold personality. Although this is not an ideal way to get an employee to play ball, a manager still must give an impression to the employee of a balance between a cop, a mentor, and a friend. A Scooby Snack Again, attitudes do not change overnight and require constant monitoring. There will be some resulting steps that are noticeable to the manager. Although these steps may not be the desired end state attitude, they still have to be commended either verbally or with action. Expectancy theory (Vroom) argues that an employee will be motivated to exert higher levels of effort when he or she believes that that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. Along those lines, a manager would do well if he or she gives the employee a few acknowledgements when appropriate while the employee is in the process of changing an attitude. Involvement in the organization is also a determinant in an employee’s attitude. An employee who doesn’t feel like part of the “team” will try just to meet the minimum levels of performance, while one who feels like he or she is an integral part will try to go over that standard. So management must consider each worker as equal importance to the organization. Conclusion Of course, every situation is different when it comes to attitudes. The techniques discussed are some recommendations and are situational. Management will find many cases and each case is somewhat unique. Can attitudes be changed? Yes, at least sometimes. What’s most difficult is sculpting a person’s attitude to fit a certain specific need. Anyone can go up to a person with a good attitude and change it into a bad one. That’s easy. Yet, sometimes, that’s what may be needed for an organization. I’ll close with an example of this from my own personal experience. I recently had two employees working for me, but these two were husband and wife. Even though I may like the husband employee working for me, I may not like the wife employee to work for me. This was exactly the case. I hated that girl for professional and personal reasons, but couldn’t really fire her for two reasons. First, if she leaves, then he leaves. Second, she really liked the type of work she was doing for my business, and it is this second reason that I changed. Of course, if an employee likes the work that they are doing then it is an advantage to the organization, but I felt that I had to make her believe that she really didn’t like working at my store so that she leaves on her own terms. This way, I get rid of her without loosing the husband employee. To make a long story short, I don’t believe a small business should hire a married couple due to problems which can arise from personal feelings (If just one of the two employees find a disagreeable situation, then the other will be enticed to follow. Now, there is double the problem.), but in the beginning, I had no choice since she wanted to tag along. Her husband was the prime choice for my store due to his extensive knowledge and experience in this field, and for the amount of pay that he was willing to take, I wasn’t willing to give up that opportunity. So lesson well learned.







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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Dr Jeckyl and Mr Hyde

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While reading the book Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde I noticed that there are quite some


controversial issues in this novel. Here you have a man who has a problem that only he


and two of his friends knows about. However, his friends did not find out for sure about


the speculations they were having until it was too late. Once Utterson and Lanyon found


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out about Jekyll it was too late because Jekyll was already addicted to his experiment.


As if it was a drug, Dr. Jekyll would continuously drink a potion that turned him


into the evil Mr. Hyde. The experiment started out as a hopeful experiment that maybe if


he found a way to alter a good ego to a bad one, he could do it in reverse. It seems as if


Jekyll had the right intentions, but his experiment got out of control. At one point in the


book when the altered ego was brought up to the doctor he turned pale in color. “ I have


been learning something of young Hyde.” “ The large handsome face of Dr. Jekyll became


pale to the very lips, and a blackness came about his eyes.” ( pg.1) Here I can see that


this was the first time Jekyll had been confronted about his private friend. By his reaction I


could tell that he was frightened that someone knew about the infamous Hyde.


When Hyde was confronted by the lawyer on his way into the little house his first


question was “ how did you know me?” Mr. Utterson replied “ we have common friends.”


“Common friends!”…” Who are they?” Mr. Hyde was flushed with anger and surprised


when Utterson replied- Jekyll. Therefore when Utterson brought up the issue of Hyde at


the dinner party, the doctor must have been questioning whether or not there was any


suspicion going on about what he was doing.


There was a point in a conversation about Hyde when Jekyll tried to assure


Utterson that he was okay and Hyde was truly just an associate whom he knew very well.


“…I tell you one thing the moment I choose, I can be rid of Mr. Hyde.” (pg1) Here


Jekyll does the same thing that a drug addict would do if confronted about his addiction-


assure that he could stop at any time. However, just like most addicts he had no idea how


far he had gone with his experiment and still believed that he was still in control.


As the story progressed and more information was revealed about Mr. Hyde,


Jekyll’s addiction grew stronger and his friend’s concerns could not stop him. There was a


point in the story when Hyde had committed a murder and Jekyll got really concerned


about what was happening to him. The police was looking for Hyde and the entire town


knew about this gruesome character. Jekyll felt that it was probably at his best interest if


he discontinued his experiment for a while. “…but Mr. Hyde had disappeared out of the


ken of the police as though he never existed.” At this point Jekyll decided to try to go


back to living a normal life “…a new life began for Dr. Jekyll. He came out of his


seclusion, renewed relations with his friends, became once more their familiar guest and


entertainer;”. (pg)


Just as an addict would go through a period of enlightenment, where they would


really try to get rid of their addiction and do good, is what Jekyll did. He resumed life as


though nothing happened and did extra as if to make up for time loss. However, this


would not last long because with every addiction there is a period of withdrawal and there


will come a time when the addict comes face to face with his addiction once more.


Jekyll came face to face with his problem once again and could not overcome it.


He has an argument with Lanyon and requested that he left him alone and never return to his house. Lanyon in total disarray rushes home and writes the doctor immediately, asking


what was the reason for his request. This was Jekyll’s reply ; “ I mean from henceforth to


lead a life of extreme seclusion; you must not be surprised, nor must you doubt my


friendship, if my door is often shut to even you. You must suffer me to go my own dark


way. I have brought on myself a punishment and a danger that I cannot name.” Jekyll had


accepted that he had a problem and knew that even his friend could not help him. Thus he


returned to taking the potion.


As is the end of all drug addictions if they are not stopped, death is what finally


ended Jekyll’s addiction and no matter how much his friend’s wanted to help him, they


could not. When you have a loved one who has an addiction it is painful for you to see


them go through the addiction, but for some it is more painful to see them without the


drug. Jekyll requested of his friends numerous times, not to say or do anything. Being true


and loyal friends Lanyon and Utterson did as he requested. I don’t believe that they would


have been strong enough to try to stop him, and when they did it was already too late.


“ It is useless, and the time awfully fails me, to prolong this description; no one has


ever suffered such torments, let that suffice; and yet even to these, habit brought- no


alleviation- but a certain callousness of soul…my punishment might have gone on for


years, but for the last calamity which has now befallen, and which has finally severed me


from my own face and nature.” Here Jekyll sees that he is at the end and there is no


turning back from his addiction. He knows that his experiment has gone too far and has


accepted that it may be the death of him, or it is better if he dies now. “ Here, then, as I lay


down the pen, and proceed to seal up my confession I bring the life of that unhappy Henry


Jekyll to an end.” (pg 54) His friends had no chance of trying to save him at this point and hopelessly he dies.





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history report

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History Report





My report is about whether or not the United States is vulnerable or not. Since September 11 we have improved security but, United States seaports, energy systems and food and water supplies are still very vulnerable to terrorists, according to government officials. Officials say if we do not deal with these problems now that we will probably regret it. They expect greater casualties and widespread disruption to daily life as well as to the economy. The reason this problem was brought up was because of the possibility of us going to war with Iraq and that Saddam Hussein might threaten the use of weapons of mass destruction in the United States.


Federal screeners are being hired at airports, but only the tiniest


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percentage of containers, ships, trucks, and trains that enter the United States are subject to examination and weapons of mass destruction could be easily hidden among the cargo. CIA Director, George Tenet believes that Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaida network will attempt to strike again against the United States sometime soon. A year has passed since a major terrorist attack last occurred and there are already signs that Americans are lapsing back into complacency.


Now we are worried that terrorists will destroy our main bridges or key sections of tracks, but transportation officials promised to patrol trains, tracks, and stations and are asking people to look out for suspicious behavior and people. The eyes and ears of train employees and passengers are just as important for security as the information from the federal government. Information obtained from al-Qaida prisoners is what this warning is based on, as well as the photographs of United States railroad engines, cars and crossings. The FBI urged federal agencies overseeing transportation, energy and agricultural industries to be prepared.


Amtrak has taken this warning seriously. They have taken steps to increase the security on their trains. Amtrak has a police force of more than 00 members and are focusing on securing the infrastructure of the 457 mile network that extends from Washington, D.C., to Boston. They have taken other steps inside the trains and stations. They stated that these would not be noticeable by the passengers and they declined to describe them.


Some officials believe that the attack by the al-Qaida may involve other symbols of the United States economy. Information from the prisoners suggested that the terrorist attack may involve our oil tankers. This would be a serious attack on the global petroleum industry. The attack on an oil tanker off the coast of Yemen earlier this month could have been al-Quida.


The United States may well be the target of another terrorist attack. The question at this point is whether or not we are prepared for it. Most believe that if or when there is another attack on our country, it could result in possibly even greater casualties and widespread disruption to the daily life and the economy of the United States.











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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Volcanoes

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A lot of people in the world today do not know how severe or dangerous volcanoes really are. That is where I come in, my name is Cole Carroll and I am here to answer some of the questions that people are asking, but every person should be asking. They would be asking these questions if they knew how severe they could really be. Some of the questions that they are asking, such as how do they form, and how are they composed of, will all be answered in this report.


Volcanoes are really just mountains with holes on the top of them. There is a certain rock that melts in the mantle of the earth, when it does so it rises upward toward the surface for release. When it rises it collects in a reservoir called a magma chamber. Usually magma chambers are found under volcanoes. When this melted rock reaches the surface of the earth and erupts from the earth, along with pent-up gases, this is called an eruption. Before this event happens you can see a couple warning signs. The surface of the volcano swell with gas and lava before this event happens. The liquid rock that comes from an eruption will form a splatter cone around the areas that the earth is releasing lava from. This cone will direct the molten lava away from the cone and down the surface of the volcano.


There are five kinds of volcanoes that have been discovered on earth and in our solar system. The shield volcano is formed by basaltic magma. The explosions made by this volcano are generally less violent than those of other volcanoes. These volcanoes are also smaller and flatter that other volcanoes, but done be fooled by the size or shape of this volcano because even though it is small, it is still extremely dangerous and deadly. The cinder cone volcano is formed by basaltic and andestic magma.





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marketing stratigies

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Marketing strategies


Suggested in the Ansoff matrix are 4 possible marketing strategies which can be used by businesses to achieve growth. These are Market Penetration, new product development, entering new markets and diversification.


Market penetration is to achieve growth without entering a new market or introducing new products. There is a number of ways businesses can do this.


• Increasing brand loyalty can make consumers buy rival products less often. McDonalds could do this by introducing price reductions on selected products, and offers such as buy one get one free, as this would entice people to choose McDonalds over any of its rivals.


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• Another example of market penetration is when companies encourage consumers to buy their products more regularly. An example of this within McDonalds is its emphasis on breakfast as being the most important meal of the day. McDonalds entices people to “fill up properly” in the morning, and by eating a McDonald’s breakfast you will be doing this and you will be able to get on with your day better because of it.


• The third example of how companies use market penetration is through encouraging consumers to use more of their products. An example of this is McDonalds producing larger portions of French fries, and also larger meals.


Product Development is another strategy included in the Ansoff matrix. This is concerned with the marketing of new or existing products in existing markets. McDonalds could use product development, is to improve the taste of one of their products, and promote this new improved taste to boost sales.


Market Development is also part of the Ansoff Matrix. It involves the marketing of existing products in new markets. McDonalds used this strategy when it introduced its restaurants into the global market, having previously only had restaurants in America.


Diversification is the final strategy included in the Ansoff Matrix. Diversification occurs when new products are developed for new markets. It allows a business to rely less on existing markets and products and focus on change. It allows a business to spread risk and increase safety. Also if a product fails or doesn’t do very well, a product in another market w


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Monday, June 27, 2011

Poetry

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In all my poems I use the word love, but up until now,


its never been quite true


It took just spending one incredible night


with you in my arms to


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realize what the word really meant, cause I think I may love you,


and it scares me to death,


because what if the love I’m finally willing to give


is not returned, what if I’m fooling myself


into believing you actually care


that much for me. I’m not sure what do


because I want to say those words


but nothing comes out. So I’m writing it down


and putting it here for you and everyone else to see


This may not rhyme or be the best thing youll ever read


but its coming from my heart and that’s all I can offer.


So if you want to love me I’m here


like Ive always been and always will be


hopelessly lost in your presence


and content with what ever will come of us!!!


and i dont know why im standing here, and i dont know why im lacking here but i do know that im caught. Im caught in a trap that i cant esacape, and youve brought me to this place, made me change who i once was and i cant rise above this. No I cant shake the way you make me feel, because its the only thing left that is real and that scares me. Im petrified that you might see my imperfections and all my disconnections that come with loving me. Yet i know I cant go onj, because my feeling have never been this strong, so what should i do, should i just walk away give up on everything that i use to let control my days. and should i just carry on, as if you never left, should i just go away, go away away today. This might sound crazy, just a little misconstrued but i dont care right now, because im still in love with you, im still in love with you.





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achieving my dream

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All the lectures my parents gave me over the years about ‘”Not giving up”, “Set your sights high”, “Pursue your dreams”, suddenly became a reality as I turned left on the Sunset Strip heading toward West Hollywood. There it was, larger than life, high above the Whiskey-A-Go-Go, glowing in all its neon glory, “SOLD OUT, AMPERSAND”. “That’s me”, I said to my friend, “I can’t believe this is really happening!”


I pause a minute before entering the room and my life flashes before me. I have been preparing for this moment my entire life. I open the door and make my way to the stage. I slip on my guitar and give the sound engineer the signal. The lights dim as I play my first note, the crowd roars as we begin to play. People Ive never seen before are singing the lyrics to my songs. The louder the crowd becomes the better I play. All the preparation for the next sixty minutes we stand on that stage pays off. Holding on the phone with club managers for twenty minutes means nothing to me, passing out flyers and making sure our merchandise arrives on time has no significance. Spending hours and hours in the recording studio now seems like the best investment I’ve ever made. This is it, my dream come true.


I guess I’m more fortunate than most people my age in knowing exactly what I want to do with my life. In fact, I’ve known since my very first guitar lesson in second grade. Being around music since I was a child has taught me to love everything dealing with music. Being in a band since the fourth grade has given me the opportunity to see the business side music. Writing, producing and performing my own original music has taught me so much about commitment, planning and managing people with all types of personalities. Also the economics of managing a successful band and the harsh realities of paying for studio time and producing a CD has exposed me to the business side of the music business.


My lifelong dream of a career in the music industry is now on the verge of becoming a reality as I prepare for formal business training as a music industry major. The experience at the Whiskey that night only served to solidify my commitment to what my parents had always impressed upon me “Not giving up”, “Set your sights high”, “Pursue your dreams”.


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Sunday, June 26, 2011

Hemophelia

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Hemophilia


In the human body, each cell contains pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair inherited through the egg from the mother, and the other inherited through the sperm of the father. Of these chromosomes, those that determine sex are X and Y. Females have XX and males have XY. If the genetic information determining the factor VIII and factor IX level is defective, hemophilia results. When this happens, the protein factors needed for normal blood clotting are effected. In males, the single X chromosome that is effected cannot compensate for the lack, and hence will show the defect. In females, however, only one of the two chromosomes will be abnormal. The other chromosome is likely to be normal of hemophilia, hemophilia A and B. Hemophilia A is a hereditary disorder in which bleeding is due to deficiency of the clotting factor VIII. In most of the cases, the protein is reduced but in a rare amount of cases, this protein is present by the immunoassay but defective. Hemophilia A is the most common severe bleeding disorder and approximately 1 in 10,000 males are effected. The most common types of bleeding are into the joints and muscles. Those with mild hemophilia bleed only in response to major trauma or surgery. As for the patients with severe hemophilia, they can bleed in response to relatively mild trauma and will bleed spontaneously. In hemophiliacs, the levels of the factor VIII are reduced. If the plasma from a hemophiliac person mixes with that of a normal person, the Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) should be normal. Failure of the PTT to become normal is automatically diagnostic of the presence of a factor VIII inhibitor. The standard treatment of the hemophiliacs is primarily the infusion of factor VIII concentrates. In case of minor bleeding, the factor VIII levels should be raised to 5% with one infusion. For moderate bleeding, it is adequate to raise the level initially to 50% and maintain the level at greater than 5% with repeated infusion within - days. When major surgery is to be preformed, one raises the factor VIII level to 100% and then maintains the factor level at greater than 50% continuously for 10-14 days. Hemophilia B, the other type of hemophilia, is a result of the deficiency of the coagulation factor IX, also known as Christmas disease. This sex-linked disease is caused by the reduced amount of the factor IX. Unlike hemophilia A, the percentage of its occupancy due to an abnormally functioning molecule is larger. The factor IX deficiency is one seventh as common as factor VIII concentrates which have a half-life of 1 hours, the half-life of factor IX concentrates is 18 hours. In addition, factor IX concentrates contain a number of proteins, including activated clotting factors that contribute to a risk of thrombosis. Therefore, more care is needed in hemophilia B to decide on how much concentration should be used. The prognosis of the hemophiliac patients has been transformed by the availability of factor VIII and the factor IX replacement. The limiting factors that result include disability from recurrent joint bleeding and viral infections such as hepatitis B from recurrent transfusion. Since most hemophiliacs are male and only their mother can pass to them the deficient gene, a very important issue for the families of hemophiliacs now is identifying which females are carriers. One way to determine this is to estimate the amount of factor VIII and IX are present in the woman. However, while a low level confirms the carrier status, a normal level does not exclude it. In addition, the factor VIII and IX blood levels are known to fluctuate in people and will increase with stress and pregnancy. As a result, only a prediction of the carrier status can be given with this method. Another method to determine the carrier status in a woman is to look directly at the DNA from a small blood sample of several members of the family including hemophiliacs. Hemophiliacs may have become seropositive for HIV infections transmitted through factor VIII and IX concentrates and many have developed AIDS. As it can be seen, hemophilia is one of those sex-linked diseases that must involve the inheritance of both recessive and deficient chromosomes. It is mostly found in males since every male has a Y chromosome.







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GameTheory

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We will be writing on


A. “What is Game Theory?”


B. “Describing Game Theory”


C. “How Game Theory works”


Buy GameTheory term paper


“What is involved with Game Theory


Foreword


This was an exciting and mind-opening research project, and I really learned a lot from it. While difficult to choose what to say, and more importantly how to say it, I found the web site gametheory.net, which had a ton of information and where I got most of my information. I will be using quite a lot of passages from this site however, as it is worded better then I ever could. These passages will be following by parenthetical references that site exactly where I got them. I don’t know if this is necessary for a math research paper, but it is how the AP style book requires it, so that is how I will be doing it.


Game Theory


Game theory is an awesome yet distinctively hard to explain method of mathematics that has been used for thousands of years but has only recently come to our attention as a great type of math to use when approaching decisions that are otherwise impossible to reach. The actual first well-know and publicized book was written by John Von Neumann, who was a great mathematician, and known for the founding of the theory, named The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. He wrote this in collaboration with another great mathematician who was also an economist by the now well-known name of Oskar Morgenstern in 144.


How to describe game theory? It is very hard to describe it, so the following is the best explanation I can give. Game theory is a distinct and interdisciplinary approach to the study of human behavior. The disciplines most involved in game theory are mathematics, economics and the other social and behavioral sciences. (Strategy and Conflict An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory. Taken on March 1th, 00. http//william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/eco /game/game.html)


Now the theory of games in no one theory at all, but many, now in game theory, like in regular games, there are players, always more then one, and these players must make decisions that will affect the outcome, whether it is a reward or punishment. With just two people involved in the game, it is rather simple to predict the outcome, the more players get included, the more complex the game grows, and it becomes almost impossible to give answers to the questions that the game is imposing. These questions generally are, how should the players behave? And what should the ultimate outcome of the game? To answer these questions of course, is the solution of the game. So there we have the basic outline of what game theorists have to play around with.


Game theory is not only related to war and games, it is also linked largely to economics. This shouldn’t be so surprising since one of the original theorists mentioned above was one of the leading economists of his time. People ask how math is related to our economy. This is tricky, as there are several problems that make it difficult to put many economic problems in game farm. Firstly, it is hard to specify precisely the strategy that is supposed to be made available to the players, and the resolutions of the final problem is obviously debatable, as what one player might consider good and well, the other player or players might consider unfair. Better put ‘these are among the circumstances that the person takes into account in maximizing rewards. The implication of property rights, a money economy and ideally competitive markets is that the individual needs not consider her or his interactions with other individuals. She or he needs consider only his or her own situation and the conditions of the market. But this leads to two problems. First, it limits the range of the theory. Where-ever competition is restricted (but there is no monopoly), or property rights are not fully defined, consensus neoclassical economic theory is inapplicable, and neoclassical economics has never produced a generally accepted extension of the theory to cover these cases. Decisions taken outside the money economy were also problematic for neoclassical economics.’ (Strategy and Conflict An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory. Taken on March 1th, 00. http//william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/eco /game/game.html)


Now an interesting fact we all know that logic is the foundation of mathematics, and game theory has been proved useful in highly technical areas, of which logic is one of the chief ones. Another technical area to which game theory can be applied is in differential games, which have applications in control and optimization. This includes games of pursuit and evasion, warfare, and can even spread as far as profit maximization. A lot of military leaders and historical figures have applied this. In my presentation I will be including such examples as when Cortez landed in Mexico, he only had a small force with him, but he burned his ships after he landed. This was used for multiple reasons, one, his soldiers now knew that they had no way of going home, so they had better win the fight or they would all die, , the Aztecs saw the ships being burnt so they figured that the Spaniards had some kind of reason and must be invincible, so they fled to the hills and Cortez took over without a fight. Another example is in the Novel Henry V, the Count of Agincourt kills the French prisoners in full view of the enemy. This allows his men to see that the enemy sees that their men have been killed therefore if they do not win the battle and are taken prisoner they will most likely be killed as well, this makes them want to fight better and win the war. This also allows the enemy to know that their opponents know that if they are taken prisoner they will be killed, so they know that they are going to fight even harder, therefore their resolve might weaken. At the same time however, they are enraged that their fellow countrymen have been killed so they will fight harder as well to avenge the deaths of their friends. And this cycle goes round and round. It is a classic example of the mirror within the mirror; it goes on and on and on.


While doing a search on game theory I came across an interesting article in Fortune magazine, in it John McDonald described the results of a one and a half year study of the way top executives in large companies make decisions. In his report he described game theory as “…uniquely qualified to make sense of the forces of work and how it related to the strategies of some actual corporations caught up in conglomerate warfare”. He went on to talk about airline competition, plant location, and product diversification as fertile area for the use of game theory.


Now while there are many different applications of game theory, such as one-person games, two person games, the utility theory, the n-person game etc. What most people deal with, and what we have been talking about so far and will continue to talk about is the Two-Person, Zero-Sum Games of Perfect Information, or in layman’s terms, a game that involves two people, parties, or corporations etc.


When dealing with two or more parties, the main element that makes it a game is the amount of information available to the players, and these complicate matters considerably. The final outcome of a game depends on the actions of both players, while trying to think in advance of what your opponent will do in case of your move. ‘If I do this, will my opponent do this or that, or if I do that move will my opponent do that or this’, these are the classic questions that come up when applying this theory. For example the stone-paper-scissors game, in this game the players much choose their strategies simultaneously, neither knowing what the other is going to do. Now if you know what your opponent is going to do, then the answer is simple, but that would be a case of a one person game. In this game one would try to create a theory of what his opponent will do based on what he has done previously, and what he is going to do based upon the moves of his opponent. This information is of course kept in his head, as well as the possible outcomes, and the circle once again goes round and round, and we are back to the mirror in the mirror.


On this topic, in Von Neumann and Morgenstern’s book, they put the problem this way “Let us imagine that there exists a complete theory of the zero-sum two-person game which tells a player what to do and which is absolutely convincing. If the players knew such a theory then each player would have to assume that his strategy has been ‘found out’ by his opponent. The opponent knows the theory, and he knows that a player would be unwise not to follow it. Thus the hypothesis of the existence of a satisfactory theory legitimatize our investigation of the situation when a player’s strategy is ‘found out by his opponent. (The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior John Von Neumann, and Oskar Morgenstern in 144.)


Now we come to the paradox of this as well, if we are successful in constructing a theory of stone-paper-scissors that indicates which of the three strategies is best, an intelligent opponent with access to all the information can use the same logic and deduce our strategy. He then second guesses and wins, so if the original player uses the ‘best’ strategy it would end up being fatal, however if the first player knows that the second player knows the theory and the first player knows that the second player knows that the first player knows that he knows, then he is back to the beginning of the paradox. Once again we are back with the mirrors.


This is where the mathematical equations come into effect and help us to figure out what needs to be done to ensure us of our victory. I am not going to get into all of that here, as it is too hard to explain and will take too long. However, when I give my presentation I will be showing some different mathematical equations that show how this theory works and I will be talking about it then.


Another theory we must look at that is closely related to game theory is the Nash Equilibrium, where each player’s strategy is optimal given the strategies of the other players. Yes this is confusing, in better terms If there is a set of strategies with the property that no player can benefit by changing her strategy while the other players keep their strategies unchanged, then that set of strategies and the corresponding payoffs constitute the Nash Equilibrium. (William-king.www.drexel.edu. Taken on March 1th, 00 http//william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/eco/game/nash.html).


It actually is not that major of an issue while trying to explain game theory, and it can lead to more confusion, so that is all I will be talking about on the Nash Equilibrium theory.


In Summary


In constructing a theory of a or more person’s game, the game theorist has a choice, he can focus on one aspect of the game and disregard others, or he can try to capture all the relevant features of the game in a single model. Yet in either of these choices he/she still will end up paying a price.


If player/players one chooses the first course, and assumed that they were dealing with other competitive players who could communicate and have simultaneous and instantaneous access to each other, then this theory is convincing and may be used to predict what the range of punishment or reward will be.


Game theory describes the situations involving conflict in which the payoff is effected by the actions and counter-actions of intelligent opponents. (Introduction to Game Theory with Applications. Taken on March 1th, 00. http//ubmail.ubalt.edu/~harsham/opre640a/partVI.htm#rintrodecisionanaly).


It has been our intention to make this report as clear as precise as possible, to do this we have dappled in or discussed application that are excessively technical. Not only would it take too long, but also it is difficult for us to understand as well, to do this we would have to mention applications that have been made to international trade, the use of national resources, collective bargaining. These are way too in depth and detailed and would take several hundred pages and months of studying.


However, hopefully my readers have some idea of game theory after reading this, and some idea of what the problems are and what to do about them.


References


Binmore, K., Kirman, A., and Tani, P. (eds.) (1). Frontiers of Game Theory. Cambridge, MA MIT Press


Fudenberg, D., and Levine, D. (18). The Theory of Learning in Games. Cambridge, MA MIT Press


Maynard Smith, J. (18). Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.


Strategy and Conflict An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory! Roger A. McCain 1








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Saturday, June 25, 2011

Penicillin: made its mark/ran its course

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Penicillin, substance named this because the fungal contaminant was identified as Penicillium notatum. The antibacterial effect of penicillin was first discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1. With its interesting mode of action, Penicillin prevents the cross-linking of small peptide chain in peptidoglycan, the main wall polymer of bacteria. This simple antibiotic has surely made its mark and continues to do so all around the world. Penicillin has helped, enriched and saved the lives of many; however, its effectiveness may have ran its course.





Penicillin, any one of a group of antibiotics derived from the fungus Penicillium or created by using partially artificial processes. The action of natural penicillin was first observed in 18 by British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming, but another ten years passed before penicillin was concentrated and studied by British biochemist Ernst Chain, British pathologist Sir Howard Florey, and other scientists. Penicillin acts both by killing bacteria and by inhibiting their growth. It does not kill organisms in the resting stage but only those growing and reproducing. Penicillin is effective against a wide range of disease-bearing microorganisms, including pneumococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci, the clostridium that cause tetanus, and the syphilis spirochete. The drug has been successfully used to treat such deadly diseases as endocarditis, septicemia, gas gangrene, gonorrhea, and scarlet fever. Toxic symptoms produced by penicillin are limited largely to allergic reactions that can be anticipated by the use of scratch tests before administration of the drug. In 180 a group of physicians announced that they had successfully desensitized several penicillin-allergic patients with a procedure that took only three hours; tests of the method on a wider scale were instituted.





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Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with the ability to synthesize cell wall. It works fast, as soon as the problem is identified penicillin goes to work. One by one the bacteria die because they cannot complete the process of division that produces two new “daughter” bacteria from a single “parent” bacterium. The new cell wall that needs to be made to separate the “daughters” is never formed. Although, with penicillins easy way of dealing with things, many side effects and bad habits have come from the antibiotic.





Though some people clearly need to be treated with penicillin, many experts are concerned about the inappropriate use of these powerful drugs. Improper antibiotic use of penicillin selects for populations of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Some bacteria avoid the effect of penicillin by the production of penicillinase, an enzyme that destroys penicillin. Another improper concern is the use of penicillin in livestock, where the drugs are used in well animals to prevent disease, and the animals are later slaughtered for food. Many people have come to take antibiotics for granted. Penicillin falls into this category. A person suffers from a bacterial infection, a penicillin pill quickly controls it. But infections, as well as resistance do occur, and can and do still kill. Patients often stop taking penicillin too soon, because symptoms improve. However, this merely encourages resistant microbes to proliferate. The infection returns a few weeks later, and this time a different drug must be used to treat it. Antibiotic Resistance is very complex. It results from gene action. Bacteria acquires genes conferring resistance in any of three ways spontaneous DNA mutation, microbial sex called transformation, and most frightening, however, is resistance acquired from a small circle of DNA called a plasmid. Now vacomycin resistance has turned up in another common hospital bug, enerococcus. It is only a matter of time, since bacteria swap resistance genes like teenagers swap T-shirts, many microbiologists believe, until vacomycin-resistant staph infections appear. Although, this was not the first bug to battle Penicillin. The first bug was Staphylococcus aureus. This bacterium is often a harmless passenger in the human body, but it can cause illness, such as pneumonia or toxic shock syndrome, when it overgrows or produces toxin. Along with the resistance comes a Vicious Cycle. Though bacterial antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon, societal factors also contribute to the problem. These factors include increased infection transmission, coupled with inappropriate antibiotic use. While awaiting the net “wonder drug,” society must appreciate, and use correctly, the ones that we already have.





Some experts think that restrictions should be placed on curtain antibiotics, including penicillin. Dr. Joe Cranston on antibiotic restriction, “we have known since way back in the antibiotic era that these drugs have been used inappropriately in surgical prophylaxis (preventing infections in surgical patients). But there is more success (in limiting antibiotic use) in hospital settings, where guidelines are established, than in the more typical outpatient settings.” Along with Cranston, many other exerts also believe in this idea of restriction.





A morphogenetic effect is seen through antibiotics. The morphogenetic effect of penicillin can be demonstrated by growing either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of sub-lethal concentrations of penicillin. By affecting the cross-linking of the bacterial cell wall, penicillin causes bacterium to grow as larger cells with less frequent cell divisions. An antibiotic having the morphogenetic effect can be good or bad at different times. Dealing with either Gram-positive and Gram-negative can bring complications. Along with a morphongenetic effect, many more effects are seen through penicillin.


Like all antibiotics, penicillin has its certain doses for certain people and their illnesses. Children have to take intravenously for severe infections 4 to 6 doses. It can also be taken orally by children, doses a day. Penicillin can also treat Renal failure, but dose has to be substantially dropped by 5 to50%. Nursing mothers can be given penicillin. Concentrations in breast milk are low, but the risk of an alteration of the child’s intestinal flora or of a hyper sensitization cannot be excluded. Pregnant women can take it as well. It cannot be taken for liver insufficiency. Along with penicillins aloud dose, its cautions and no dose allowing for some patients might just be even out with each other.


In penicillins journey through society and history, its effectiveness is no longer estimated, although is still highly questioned. With its terrific historical story and come about, penicillin was a new dawn. With its infections and improper use, however, some doctors and patients see it as a typical medical flop. Penicillins uses and contributions have surely helped this complex world like no other. Along with other all antibiotics its questionable causes and effects have also stunned the world. With this modern marvels healing and down falls, the medical world and present day intellectuals around us all will continue to make advances even when something may have, ran its course.


Please note that this sample paper on Penicillin: made its mark/ran its course is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Penicillin: made its mark/ran its course, we are here to assist you. Your research paper on Penicillin: made its mark/ran its course will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Tinea Pedis

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Tinea Pedis. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Tinea Pedis paper right on time.

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Tinea refers to a fungus skin disease occurring on various parts of the body, the name indicating the part affected. Pedis refers to a fungus skin infection of the foot. Tinea Pedis is a common fungal infection that affects the spaces between the toes (Interdigital spaces) and the sole of the foot.


The symptoms of Tinea Pedis is white scaly skin which can causes an itching on the bottom of the foot and between the toes. When you have this infection the skin will soften, causing the whitish borders to peel off easily, The center of the infection can be irritated, red, and in some cases a watery substance can be seen. There are different types of Tinea Pedis. One type is “Moccasin Variety” (White, thick, dense and scaly sole), usually this consists of a large area of cracked skin, inflammation, fluid field vesicles or bullae. Itching can be a symptom but at times there is non.


The causes of Tinea Pedis is Dermatophytes and fungus. Normily they live in the dead layers of skin, nails and hair follicles. Tinea Pedis can be transmitted through minor cuts on the skin. It can become bad and cause symptoms if the conditions are right.


Diagnosis of Tinea Pedis should be made by a doctor. Usually a scraping of the skin can be put on glass and stained with potassium hydroxide and if needed the scrapping can be sent to a laboratory for further study to identify the exact fungus.


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Risk factors of Tinea Pedis are hot weather, humid and warm environments, Athletic activities, and tight fitting shoes.


Treatment of Pinea Pedis can be done by simply drying your feet after showering, wearing good ventilated shoes, Anti fungal creams, and if severe oral medications.


Similar conditions of Tinea Pedis include Erythrasma, Psoriasis, Intertrigo, Contact dermatitis.





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Friday, June 24, 2011

The Reaction of Prohibition: The Jazz Age

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The 18th amendment, National Prohibition, changed society in the years of 11-1; making the jazz age, also know as the Roaring Twenties a spectacular and eventful time. In my essay, I will explain the meaning of prohibition and go further in the 10. From clothes fashions to Al Capone and the St.Valentine’s Day Massacre this essay will be full of interesting facts of the 10s. We’ll start off with fashion of the 10s.


The young people of the twenties were classified as “flappers”, because of their flair and creativity. Men dressed well. They wore three-piece suits to parties, which makes an expensive impression on today’s young men. For daywear, men dressed in nice tan, black, brown, or gray slacks with a button down shirt and maybe a tie and hat. Men were not as flashy and flamboyant as the women’s fashion.


This was a great age for women to express themselves, they became daring to show more skin and reveal their personality through their clothing. Eveningwear for women was very elegant. Evening dresses in the beginning of the twenties was a mid-calf length dress that maybe had sequences or a glittering substance to make the woman wearing it stand out and look great. As the twenties progressed and moved on, women started wearing their dresses just below the knee and their neckline was a very long, sharp v-neck. Sometimes, the v-neck was also on the back of the dress showing the upper part of the back.


The daywear for women consisted of many things. There were many things to mix and match. They could wear a skirt that was mid-calf and if they were daring enough they would wear their skirt just below their knees. They could also wear pants in any color with a button down shirt and they even wore hats and ties like the men did.


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The fashion isn’t what made the jazz age what it is, although it played a big part. It all started when prohibition of alcohol evolved.


The 18th amendment states


The sale or manufacture of intoxication liquors is forbidden.


1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof, for beverage purposes, is hereby prohibited.


. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided by the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission thereof to the States by the Congress.


Prohibition was established because of the concern of future problems of alcoholism among immigrants and Americans. Prohibiting the use of alcohol was a huge up-roar. Many people used drinking as a way to be social able, which changed the lives of many Americans. The style of the country changed and made many businesses such as clubs and saloons loose money and business. Prohibitionists didn’t look at the people’s point of view they had to give up something that was private in their lives and majority of the people drank alcohol and started to drink it when it was legal. They did not keep in mind that prohibition can’t happen in one day. Americans were angered because the prohibitionists ignored the fact that they tried making something a crime when Americans never thought drinking alcohol was a crime. “Lawmakers could not legislate away a thirst.”


Since clubs and saloons couldn’t sell their most popular, consumer product, alcohol (beer), they lost customers and a lot of money. The businesses were hard up for money and resulted in bringing gambling and prostitution in. Many Americans thought saloons were dirty, trashy, and disrespectful. But the businesses had to attract customers somehow.


As a result of prohibition, bootlegging became a resolution for seekers of alcohol. That is what started the jazz age. Gangs of all kinds were constantly trying to get their hands on alcohol by bootlegging. The gangs were also known as “bootlegging competitors”. Chicago was the most popular place of crime and gangs. Chicago is where Al Capone was introduced in to a high rate of crime.


Al Capone (18-147) was the most famous gangster in Chicago and the 10s. Al Capone was not born or raised in Chicago. He was born and brought up in Brooklyn. He was the 4th boy of the Capone family. His parents were very hard working and quiet. They kept to themselves and tried to raise their children as best as they could. There was no abuse in the family.


The Capone family moved to another part of Brooklyn where they were the minority. It was very hard for Al Capone to adjust at school. Fights between students and students and teachers were common. Al Capone got into an argument with a teacher and she hit him and he struck her back and he was expelled at the age of 14 and never attended school again.


Just as that happened the family moved to another neighborhood in Brooklyn. This exposed Al Capone to a new atmosphere where he met his wife Mae and the gangster, Johnny Torrio. Johnny Torrio taught Al Capone to be who he ended up to be. The boys in the neighborhood really looked up to Johnny Torrio and Torrio always had errands for them to run for him. He began to really like and trust Al Capone. Therefore, he had him doing extra errands for him. In 10 Torrio moved to Chicago and Al Capone found other things and people.


Frankie Yale, a new person to look up to opened up a bar and hired Al Capone as a bartender at the age of 18. Johnny Torrio recommended him. Customers and especially his boss liked Capone, until one day he commented to a very pretty girl and offended her. Her brother got upset and fought Capone. He met with the brother and was straitened out and told to hold his anger when appropriate.


When Al Capone was 1, he met his wife Mae and had a son, Albert Francis Capone. Johnny Torrio was his godfather. The baby was normal at first, but then showed signs of congenital syphilis. Al Capone was aware that he had the disease but thought that the infection had gone away.


At the age of twenty-two Capone moved to Chicago by Torrio’s request. 11 was the start and change of Capone. He was now introduced to high crime. He became a partner to Torrio and was manager of Four Deuces, which was a whorehouse and gambling joint all in one.


Things started to get really risky for Torrio, Bugs Moran, a gangster wanted Torrio dead and Bugs and another gangster of his caught Torrio and shot him several times leaving him hospitalized. Capone stayed at the hospital with Torrio until he woke up. When Torrio did awake, he wanted to get out of his life of crimes and he gave it all up to Al Capone and his brothers. Al Capone was now in power.


St. Valentine’s Day Massacre was not the only murder planned by Al Capone, but it was the most interesting and amazing murder. This massacre was planned to get Bug Moran on account of shooting and almost killing Torrio. McGurn planned it all. He had a bootlegger lure the Bug Moran gang into buying alcohol for a good price. The gang agreed to meet back at the garage. When they met, two men dressed in stolen police uniforms and trench coats made it all look like a raid. The bootleggers were caught and lined up against the wall and the two men in uniform came in and shot the Moran gang. Then after that happened, the two men dressed as policemen took two men and made it look like an arrest. Anyone that saw it would have believed it. Everyone knew that Capone was behind this. He was later sent to Alcatraz Prison. And died in 147.


Al Capone’s life was the most popular of the 10s.





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What are the contrasts in character and behaviour between MacBeth and Lady MacBeth?

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What are the contrasts in character and behaviour between MacBeth and Lady MacBeth?


MacBeth is a play written by William Shakespeare, which traces the downfall of MacBeth due to his ambition. MacBeth, the main character, is a nobleman, the Thane of Glamis, as well as a Scottish general in King Duncans army. Later he becomes the Thane of Cawdor and eventually King of Scotland. To achieve this he resorts to violent measures, and murders his way to the throne with the help of his persuasive wife, Lady MacBeth. Lady MacBeth is a woman who cleverly takes advantage of her husbands love for her to persuade him to kill in order to be crowned king of Scotland. Despite this she finds that she cannot cope with the guilt, which eventually leads to her suicide and later, MacBeth dies in battle. Although MacBeth and Lady MacBeth love each other, they grow further and further apart as the play goes on.


Before the murder I realise that MacBeth is very highly thought of in


Scotland for his prowess in battle as he receives many compliments from a sergeant Brave MacBeth,


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and even from King Duncan


Valiant cousin


However Shakespeare then uses the supernatural to tempt MacBeth, who is indecisive earlier in the play, and whose prophecies at this point, when he meets up with three witches whom he had already met


suggest that he will become Thane of Cawdor and later, king of Scotland. MacBeth is


now encouraged to contemplate kingship, although he does not to take any action due


the fact that he has a conscience. However he is beginning to believe it is possible,


because of the prophecies coming true, when he becomes Thane of Cawdor.





And, for an earnest of a greater honour,


He bade me from him, call thee Thame of Cawdor. When Duncan states that Malcolm shall be the next king of Scotland, MacBeth̢۪s ambition is sparked and the idea of killing Duncan is shown by the dark imagery in his soliloquy.


Stars, hide your fires


However, although MacBeth likes the idea he still cannot bring himself to commit murder. This is in total contrast to his wife, who is used by Shakespeare to push her husband. As soon as she receives the letter telling her of the witches prophecies she says decisively,


Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be


What thou art promised.


She shares his ambition and is single minded in her efforts to make MacBeth King In order to do this more effectively she even calls on evil spirits to remove any traces of kindness and generosity from her;


Unsex me here And fill me from the crown to the toe top


full of direst cruelty.


Lady MacBeth plans the murder in detail and will not allow MacBeth to even think of failure. In contrast, MacBeth is indecisive, shown by his weighing up the pros and cons, and eventually saying,


We will proceed no further in this business.


However MacBeth, is accused of not being manly by his wife, and is persuaded to go ahead with the murder showing that his wife is stronger willed. I feel that MacBeths uncertainty about whether to go forward with the plan to murder king Duncan is because he looks ahead towards the consequences, If the assassination could trammel up the consequence,


whereas Lady MacBeth looks no further than the murder.





I see the second act as the turning point in the play as in this act MacBeth finally kills King Duncan and gains the confidence which enables him to repeat the deed later on. Just before MacBeth is to murder Duncan, the supernatural is again used by Shakespeare in the shape of a dagger, to highlight MacBeths guilt and weakness and to show that he still has a conscience.


Is this a dagger which I see before me , The handle toward my hand? Come let me clutch thee.


Because MacBeth still has a conscience during the murder of Duncan he panics and forgets to smear the guards with blood and leave the fatal daggers with them. Even after talking to his wife he still cannot bring himself to return to the scene of the crime and relies on his wife to go back. Although Lady MacBeth, is stronger- willed than MacBeth, she is not as strong as she believes herself to be. I can see this when she has a very anxious conversation with her husband.


Did you not speak, When, Now, As I descended, Ay, Hark


Shakespeare uses a staccato effect to show their guilt and how worried they are.





Directly after the murder of Duncan MacBeth panics and is so shocked that he needs his wife, Lady MacBeth, to tell him what to do. The difference between them is clear in their attitude towards the blood on MacBeths hands after he has killed Duncan. MacBeths imaginative nature is clear in the imagery he uses.


Will all great Neptunes oceans wash this blood


Clean from my hand


However in total contrast to MacBeth, his wife consoles him when she tells him,


A little water clears us of this deed.


I can see that she is practical and can deal with present problems but does not look ahead, which is ironic when I think of the sleepwalking scene.


When King Duncan is discovered to be dead MacBeth is unsure how to react and so becomes over-zealous, killing the guards. Suspicion starts to spread because of MacBeths irrational behaviour. However to distract people and to shift the attention which is on MacBeth, Lady MacBeth faints. It is clear that Lady MacBeth is more practical and clear-sighted and that MacBeth depends on her.





After MacBeth and his wife are crowned King and Queen at Scone, MacBeth becomes more dominant and distant. I am surprised to find that he no longer involves his wife in any of his plans. This next plan is to dispose of Banquo and his son as the witches have prophesied that the descendants of Banquo will be crowned kings of Scotland. Lady MacBeth has not been told of his plans.


Be innocent of the knowledge dearest chuck.


However it is the manner in which MacBeth attempts to kill Banquo and his son which is more important. MacBeth poisons the minds of three murderers and gives them instructions about when and where to kill Banquo and Fleance. This is unbelievably different to when he and his wife were planing the murder of Duncan and shows just how much confidence he has gained. This time he has planned the whole thing himself, but hired others to do the deed. Hence he has become independent of Lady MacBeth.


Despite MacBeths planning of Banquos murder on his own, Lady MacBeth is still the stronger mentally, evident when she tries to calm her husband during a banquet, during which he sees his second vision; Banquos ghost, another symbol of his guilt.


Thou canst not say I did it never shake


Thy gory locks at me.


However Lady MacBeth quickly takes the initiative, saying that MacBeth is ill. She later taunts him for being unmanned, which shows her mental superiority and that she is much more quick-thinking than he is. At this point MacBeth tells his wife that he is at the point of no return and the start of his downfall.


I am in blood


Steepd in so far that, should I wade no more,


Returning were as tedious as go oer





At the beginning of Act Four MacBeth significantly makes a conscious decision to visit the witches, showing me that he is now choosing evil.


I will to-morrow,


And betimes I will, to the weird sisters.


The witches are playing with MacBeth, although he does not realise this!


None of woman born shall harm MacBeth


This seems to guarantee MacBeths position as King of Scotland, as does the next apparition


MacBeth shall never vanquishd be, until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him.


However the only apparition which worries MacBeth is


beware MacDuff


He now no longer attempts to hide his evil but embarks on a reign of tyranny, for example ordering MacDuffs family killed. MacBeth has become a tyrant totally steeped in evil, considering himself invulnerable.





In contrast Lady MacBeth is now very vulnerable which is contrary to how she behaved earlier in the play. She seems to have gone insane as a result of her guilt which is also exposed, but in a different way to that of MacBeth as she sleepwalks. She constantly washes her hands which refers back to the time when her hands were covered in blood. Although then, she told MacBeth that a little water clears us of this deed she now shows that this is not so.


All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this hand.


By this, I think she means that she can never be forgiven for the sins which she committed earlier. However, the most noticeable form of her guilt is when she sleepwalks and mutters words which have the potential to incriminate her husband.


The thane of Fife had a wife


She is obviously suffering mental anguish and eventually commits suicide. MacBeth has also changed, but in contrast to his wife he has grown colder and more callous. When he hears of Lady MacBeths death he shows no grief, merely saying


She should have died hereafter.


Unlike Lady MacBeth he feels no remorse which is in contrast to the MacBeth earlier on in the play. He realises that life has become mechanical, evident in the repetition of ;


To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,


Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,


To the last syllable of recorded time;


However MacBeth senses the end and his death due to the fact that Malcolm, and the English army are approaching to overthrow him. At this point MacBeth must be anxious and starting to feel his kingdom slip away due to the news of the desertions from his army and realises that the witches were playing with him . However MacBeth still decides to fight to the death and die like a brave soldier. In a sense MacBeth too is contemplating suicide because, although he knows his castle could withstand a siege, he goes out to fight and is killed by MacDuff.


I find the differences between MacBeth and his wife interesting, especially the way their roles are reversed as the play goes on. At the end of the play I see that MacBeth and his wife are viewed alike in death despite their obvious differences of character and behaviour earlier on in the play.


this dead butcher and his fiend-like queen.











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